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Welcome to the Pennsylvania Iron Furnace Sourcebook
A Virtual Museum of Pennsylvania Iron Furnaces & Iron Works

A Digital Iron Furnace Research Library
The 19th Century Society of Pennsylvania
Links to:
Pennsylvania Furnaces Every Name Index
Pennsylvania Furnaces County Index
Pennsylvania Clickable County  Map

Cited References
Biobliographical References to the Iron Furnaces and Iron Works of Pennsylvania,
Pennsylvania Iron Furnace Sourcebook

A Tribute to the Iron Masters and Iron Workers
that built and keep in-blast
the old Stone Blast Furnaces of Pennsylvania.

by
Raymond A. Washlaski, Historian, Archaeologist, Editor & Web Master;
Ryan P. Washlaski, Technical Advisor.
Virtual Museum of Pennsylvania Iron Furnaces & Iron Works
A Publication of the 19th Century Society of Pennsylvania

Updated Dec. 7, 2004

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Biobliographical References to
Pennsylvania Iron Furnaces & Iron Works
Cited References
Abraham, Evelyn
1937  Isaac Meason, The First Ironmaster West of the Alleghenies.
    Published in "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine,"  Vol. 20, No.1:41-49.  Pittsburgh, PA: Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Adams, David M.
1945  The Iron Industry in Blair County, Part II.
   Published in "Blair County's First Hundred Years," George A. Wolf, ed.  Hollidaysburg, PA: Blair County Historical Society. 
Africa, J. Simpson
1883  History of Huntingdon and Blair Counties, Pennsylvania.
    Philadelphia, PA:  Louis H. Everts.
Albert, George Dallas
1882 History of the County  of Westmoreland.
    Philadelphia, PA:  Louis H.Everts. [Contains a little bit of information on Alliance Furnace, Jacob's Creek, Fayette County.]
Allen, Jay Douglas
1970  The Mount Savage Iron Works, Mount Savage, Maryland.  
    Master Thesis, University of Maryland.  [A case study in Pre-civil War Industrial Development.]
American Iron and Steel Association
1878  Directory to the Iron and Steel Works of the United States.  
    Embracing the Blast Furnaces, Rolling Mills, Steel Works, Catalas Forges and Bloomeries in Every State and Territory.  Corrected to September 1, 1878.  Philadelphia, PA:  The American Iron and Steel Asscoiation, 265 S. Fourth St. [Reference source location:  Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA.]
1880  Directory to the Iron and Steel Works of the United States.  
    Corrected to March 15, 1880.  Philadelphia, PA:  The American Iron and Steel Association.
1888  Directory of the Iron and Steel Works of the United States.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Allen, Lane & Scott Publishers.
American Iron Association
1857 American Iron Association Bulletin 1856.  
   by Lesley.  Philadelphia, PA:  American Iron Association.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
1985  Cornwall Iron Furnace: National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark.  
   Cornwall, PA:  American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Susquehanna Section, Cornwall Iron Furnace.
American Weekly Mercury  (Newspaper)
1731  Amercian Weekly Mercury.  
   Weekly Newspaper.  Philadelphia, PA: American Weekly Mercury Publishing.
Anonymous
n.d.  Juniata Forge / Mary Ann Furnace.  Untitled manuscript.
   Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania State Archives.
Anonymous
1965  Shade Furnace in Operation in 1809.
    Published in, "Laurel Messenger," May, 1865.  Publication of the Somerset Genealogical & Historical Society.  Somerset, PA: Somerset Genealogical & Historical Society.
Arms, C. T., Sr., and Edward White, eds.
1880  History of Indiana County, Pennsylvania, 1745-1880.
    Neward, OH:  J.A. Caldwell, publisher. 
Ashburner, C A.
1885  Notes on Iron Ore in Cameron County, Pa.  
    Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 2nd Annual Report., pp.363-68.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Ashley, G. H. and others.
1881 Pennsylvania's Mineral Heritage.  
   Pennsylvania Topographical & Geological Survey, 4th Series, pp.73-200.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Topographical & Geological Survey.
Association of Iron Manufacturers
1873  Statistical Report of the National Association of Iron Manufcturers for 1872.  
   Thomas Dunlap, Secretary, 141 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.  Philadelphia, PA:  J.A. Wagenseller, 23 North Sixth Street, Printer.
Atkinson, G.W.P.
1903  Reminiscence of Brady's Bend Enterprise.  
   Published in "Railroad Age", April 3, 1903.
Auction Catalog
1925  Auction Catalog:  Joseph E. Thropp Iron Manufaturing Business.  
   Saxton Furnace Auction.  Huntingdon, PA:  Huntingdon County Historical Society Archives.
[Reference source: Photocopy in the collections of the Huntingdon County Historical Society.]
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Babcock, Charles A.
1919  Venango County, Her Pioneers and People.  
    n.p.:  n.p.  [Sketchs of various iron furnace in Venango County.]
Baldwin, Leroy
1964  Two Hundres Years in Shade Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania,  1762-1962.
    Central City, PA: n.p.  [Contains information on Shade Furnace, Somerset Co..]
Bartholomew, Craig
1978  Anthracite Iron Making and Industrial Growth in the Lehigh Valley.  
   Published in "Proceedings, Lehigh County Historical Society, " vol. 32 (1978), pp.129-183.  Allentown, PA: Lehigh County Historical Society.
Bathe, Greville
1938  An Engineer's Miscellany.  
   Philadelphia, PA: Patterson and White.
[Chapter VI, "The old Cornwall Furnace", (pp.61-77), is a most complete account of Cornwall Furnace & contains the most detailed description of its physical plant, with photographs and measured drawings by the author.]
Battle, J.H.
1887  History of Bucks County, Pennsylvania.  
   Philadelphia, PA: n.p.
[Contains a good account of the Durham Iron Works, Bucks Co.]
1985  History of Bucks County, Pennsylvania.
   (Reprint edition) by Pennsylvania Reprint Society and Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services, Laughlintown, PA.  Spartanburg, SC:  The Reprint Company, Publishers.
Bauerman, H.
1868  A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron.  
   New York, NY:  n.p.
Baughman, Jon and Ron Morgan
1979  Tales of the Broad Top.  Vol. II.
    Saxton, PA: n.p.
1988  From Coal to Glory:  The History of the Huntingdon & Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, 1852-1874. Vol. 1.
    Saxton, PA:  n.p.
Bausman, Joseph F., Rev.
1904  History of Beaver County Pennsylvania.  
   And Its Centennial Celebration, Illustrated, in 2 vols.  New York, NY:  The Knickerbocker Press.
Bedford County Press (Newspaper)
1958  Furnace Slag Being Processed.
    June 13, 1958.  Bedford, PA: Bedford County Press Publishing Co.. [Everett Iron Company furnace slag being reclaimed.]
Beers, F. W.
1865  Atlas of the Oil Region of Pennsylvania.  
   New York, NY:  F.W. Beers, A.D.Ellis & G.G.Soule.
1871  Atlas of Indiana County, Pennsylvania.  
   New York, NY:  F.W. Beers and Company.
1877  County Atlas of Bedford, Pennsylvania.
    New York, NY:  F.W. Beers & Company.
1901  Biographical Annals of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.  
  New York, NY:  F.W. Beers and Company.
Bennett, John William
1977  Iron Workers in Woods Run and Johnstown:  The Union Era 1865-1895.  
   Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.  Pittsburgh, PA:  University of Pittsburgh.
Berg, S.M.
1951  Some Facts and Figures of Fayette County.  
   n.p.:  n.p.
Bergner, Milton K.
1939  Carrick Furnace.  
   Published in "Kittochtinny Historical Society Papers," vol. 1939, pp.495-507.  n.p.:  Kittochtinny Historical Society.
Berringer, Gloria
1979  Preliminary Research Report:  Comprehensive Historic Sites Survey of Indiana County, Pennsylvania.  
   7 Sept., 1979.  Washington D.C.:  n.p.
Best, Gerald M.
1966  Locomotives of the Dicken Manufacturing Company.  
   San Marino, CA:  Golden West Books.
Bicentennial Book Committee, Mill Creek, PA
1978  Mill Creek, Pennsylvania.  
   Mapleton, PA:  First National Bank of Mapleton.
Biddle, Henry D., ed.
1889  Extracts from The Journal of Elizabeth Drinker, 1759-1809.  
   Philadelphia, PA:  n.p.
Binder, Frederick Moore
1974  Coal Age Empire, Pennsylvania Coal and its Utilization to 1860.  
   Harrisburg, PA:  n.p.
Bining, Arthur Cecil
1933a  British Regulation of the Colonial Iron Industry.  
   Philadelphia, PA:  University of Pennsylvania Press.
1933b  The Iron Plantations of Early Pennsylvania.  
   Published in "Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography," April, vol.LVII: pp.117-137.
1933c  The Rise of Iron Manufacturing in Western Pennsylvania.
   Published in "The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine," vol. 16, no.4 (November, 1933):                pp.235-256. Pittsburgh, PA:  Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
1938  Pennsylvania Iron Manufacturing in the Eighteenth Century.  
   Publication of Pennsylvania Historical Commission, Vol. IV.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical Commission. [An excellent guide to the 18th century iron works of Pennsylvania.]
1951  Early Ironmasters of Pennsylvania.  
   Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commiaaion.
1954  Pennsylvania's Iron and Steel Industry.  
   Published in "Pennsylvania History Studies: No. 5," Gettysburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical Association.
1973  Pennsylvania Iron Manufacture in the Eighteen Century.  
   2nd. ed.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
n.d.  Arthur C. Bining Papers.  
  
Notes, photographs, clippings & bibliographical references used by Arthur C. Bining in preparation of numerous books & articles relating to the development of the iron & steel industry.  Photographs of numerous forges & furnaces.  Pennsylvania State Archives MSS Group MG-23.  Arthur C. Bining Papers, ca.1898-1955.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania State Archives.
Bishop, J. Leader
1864  A History of American Manufactures From 1608 to 1860.  
   Exhibiting the Orgin and Growth of the Principal Mechanical Arts and Manufactures, From the Earliest Colonial Perios to the Adoption of the Constitution;  and Comprising Annals of the Industry of the United States in Machinery, Manufactures and useful Arts, with a notice of the Important Inventions, Tariffs, and the Results of each Decennial Census.  2 Vols.  Philadelphia, PA:  Edward Young & Company, No.441 Chestnut Street.
     [(Bishop,1864:567-8). Mentions William Turnbull & Company's Furnace, built 1790.  Also Turnbull & Marmie Furnace & Forge, first blown-in, Nov. 1, 1790.]
Bishop, Philip W.
1959  The Beginnings of Cheap Steel.  
   United States National Museum Bulletin 218.  Washington D.C.:  Smithsonian Institution.
Blackburn, E. Howard and William H. Welfley
1906  History of Bedford and Somerset Counties, Pennsylvania.  
   New York, NY:  The Lewis Publishing Company.
[Contains short histories of the furnaces & iron works in Bedford & Somerset Counties.]
Blair County Historical Society
n.d.  Indiana Furnaces Records.  
   Buena Vista Furnace Day Book, other furnace records, MSS collections, Blair County Historical Society.  Altoona, PA:  Blair County Historical Society, Baker Mansion.
Blairsville Record  (Newspaper)
1828  Blairsville Record.  (Newspaper),
   January 31,1828.  Blairsville,PA: Blairsville Record Publishing Company.
Bloom, Lydia
1985  Everett, My Home Town.
    Published in: "The Pioneer,"  v.11, July, 1985.  Bedford, PA: The Pioneer Historical Society of Bedford County. [Contains information on the Everett Iron Company.]
1987  The Iron Furnace of Earlston.
    Published in: "The Pioneer," v.13, October, 1987.  Bedford, PA:  The Pioneer Historical Society of Bedford County.  [Contains information on the Everett Iron Cmpany.]
Bodnar, John
1977  Immigration and Industrialization Ethnicity in an American Mill Town, 1870-1940.  
   Pittsburgh, PA:  University of Pittsburgh Press.
Bomberger, B. & W. Sisson
1991 Made in Pennsylvania:  An Overview of the Major Historical Industries of the Commonwealth.
   Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Bureau of Historic Preservation. Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Boucher, John Newton
1888  The Cambria Iron Company.  
   Harrisburg, PA:  Meyers Printing & Publishing House.
1906  History of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.  
   New York, NY:  The Lewis Publishing Company.
1918 Old and New Westmoreland.  
   New York, NY:  The American Historical Society, Inc.
1924  William Kelly:  A True History of the So-Called Bessemer Process.  
   Greensburg, PA:  Published by the Author.
Boughter, I F.
1923  Western Pennsylvania and The Morrill Tariff.  
   Published in "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine," Vol. 6, No. 2, April, pp.106-133.  Pittsburgh, PA: Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Breck, Samuel
1818  Sketch of the Internal Improvements Already Made by Pennsylvania.
   Philadelphia, PA: J. Maxwell
Brody, David
1960  Steelworkers in America, the Nonunion Era.
   Cambridge, MA:  n.p.
Brown, Eli
1852  The Pictorial Sketch-Book of Pennsylvania. Or Its Scenery, Internal Improvements, Resources, and Agriculture.  
   Philadelphia, PA:  Willis P. Hazard
   [Reference source: located in St. Vincent College Library, Latrobe, PA.]
Boyer, Peter Price
1968  One Hundred and Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Founding of Methodism in Cornwall, Pennsylvania.  
   Published in "The Charcoal Burner", (1968), p.32-5.
Boylston, Herbert M.
1928  An Introduction to the Metallurgy of Iron and Steel.  
   New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Brown, R.C., Sr., ed.
1895  History of Butler County, Pennsylvania.  
   n.p.: R.C. Brown & Company, Publishers.
[Contains short histories of the furnaces in Butler County.]
Brown, Runk & Company
1888  History of Mercer County.  
   Chicago, IL: Brown, Runk & Co.
Brown, Sharon A.
1989  Historic Resource Study:  Cambria Iron Company.  America's Industrial Heritage Project - Pennsylvania.       Historic American Building Survey / Historic American Engineering Record.  HABS/HAER.  America's Industrial Heritage Project.  Washington, D.C.:  National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
 [An in-depth study of the Cambria Iron Company, Johnstown, Cambria Co., PA.]
Brueggebors, Barbara
1984  Country Scene Brings to Mind Bit of History.  
   State College, PA:  Centre Daily Times, 26 May 1984
Bur. Stats.
Bureau of Statistics, PA.
        See: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Burgess, Milton
n.d.  Old Manuscript Pictures: Historic Canoe Furnace.
    From the "Morrison's Cove Herald," undated photocopy in the Williamsburg Historical Society Archives.
Burkert, Richard A. & George Hand
1984 Iron and Steel Making in the Conemaugh Valley.
    Published in "Johnstown:  The Story of a Unique Valley,"  2nd. edition. Johnstown, PA:  Johnstown Flood Museum.
Burton, S.E. and R.S. Sanford
1949  Investigation of Boiling Springs Manganese Iron Deposits, Cumberland County, Pa.  
   U.S. Bureau of Mines Report Inv. 4436, 20p.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Bureau of Mines.
Busch, Clarence M.
1894 Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III.  Industrial Statistics. Vol. XXII., 1894
   Harrisburg, PA:  State Printer.
Butts, Charles
1906  Economic Geology of the Kittanning & Rural Valley Quadrangles (Pennsylvania).  
   U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 279.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey.
Butts, Charles and E.S. Moore
1936  Geology and Mineral Resources of the Bellefonte Quadrangle, Pennsylvania.          
   U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 855.  Washington. D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey.
Butts, Charles, F.M. Swartz and Bradford Willard
1939  Topographic and Geologic Atlas of Pennsylvania No. 96, Tyrone Quadrangle.  
   Geology and Mineral Resources.  Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th Series, Dept. of  Interior Affairs, Topographic and Geological Survey.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Topographic and Geological Survey.  
[Contains mentions and some descriptions of the iron furnaces in the quadrangle]
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Caldwell, J. A.
1877  Caldwell's Illustrated Historical Atlas of Clarion County.  
   Newark, OH:   Published by J. A. Caldwell.
1880  History of Indiana County, Pennsylvania.
   Newark, OH:  Published by J.A. Caldwell
Callahan, W. H. and W. H. Newhouse
1929  A Study of the Magnetite Ore Body at Cornwall, Pa.
   published in "Economic Geology," v. 24, no. 4, pp.403-11.  Urbana, IL:  Economic Geology
Caller, Caemel
1975  Issac Meason:  The Man, Ironmaster and Businessman, His Mansion.
   Connellsville, PA: Connellsville Historical Society, Inc.
Cambria County Historical Society, Ebensburg, Pennsylvania
n.d.  Archival material collections relating to the Iron Industry of Cambria County, PA     
    Ebensburg, PA:  The Cambria County Historical Society.
n.d.  MSS Collections of Newspapers printed in Ebensburg, Cambria Co.  
    Ebensburg, PA:  The Cambria County Historical Society.
1954  Commemorating the Sesquicentennial of Cambria County 1804-1954.
    Ebensburg, PA:  The Cambria County Historical Society.
1987  Eliza Furnace file.
     Ebensburg, PA: Cambria County Historical Society.
Cambria County Planning Commission
1980  Cambria County Inventory of Historic Sites.
      Ebensburg, PA: Cambria County Planning Commission.  [Contains information on Eliza Furnace.]
Carter, W.C. & A. J. Glossbrebber
1834  History of York County, 1729-1834.  
    York, PA:  n.p.
1930  History of York County, 1729-1834.  
    New Edition.  Harrisburg, PA: n.p.
Cassady, John C.
1932  The Somerset County Outline.  
    Scottdale, PA:  Mennonite Publishing House.  [Contains information on Shade Furnace.]
Census of Industry
Census of Manuf.
            Products of Industry Census of Manufactures.
            Products of Industry
    See:  United States Census of Manufactrues.
Centre Daily Times (Newspaper)
v.d.  Centre Daily Times (Newspaper).
   [Various dates.]  State College, PA:  Centre Daily Times Publishing Company.
Chamber, Thomas; G.N. Ecjert, & Samuel J. Reeves (Committee.)
1846  A Report of a Committee to the Iron and Coal Association of the State of Pennsylvania.
    Philadelphia, PA: Jasper Harding.
Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh
1885  Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania:  Their Industries and Commerce, Resources and Propects.
    Pittsburgh, PA:  Jos. Eichbaum & Company, Printers.
Chancellor, Paul, and Majorie Potts, Wendell Wescott, Paul Westcott
1953  A History of Pottstown.  
    Pottstown, PA:  Historical Society of Pottstown.
Chapman, Thomas J.
1865  The Valley of the Conemaugh.  
   Altoona, PA:  McCrum & Dean, Printers.
Chard, Jack
1986  Making Iron & Steel.  The Historic Processes: 1700-1900.  
   Bogota, NJ:  Roebling Chapter of the Society for Industrial Archeaology.
Charming Forge MSS
n.d.  Account books of Charming Forge, 1790-1832.
   Reading, PA:  Historical Society of Berks County.
Chester County Historical Society
n.d.  Clippings File, Genealogical Data, Ledgers from Dowlin or Mary Ann Forge.
   Chester County, PA
1936  The Iron Industry of Northern Chester County.
    Published in, "Bulletin No. 1936, Chester County Historial Society,
Clark, Victor S.
1929  History of Manufactures in the United States.
   3 Vols. New York, NY:  McGraw-Hill Book Company.  Carnegie Institution of Washington
1949  History of Manufactures in the United States.
   3 Vols.  Reprint ed.  New York, NY:  Peter Smith.
Coleman, Ernest H.
1982  Bald Eagle and Spring Creek Navigation.
    Published in "Canal Currents,"  No. 19, Winter, 1982.
Comm. Pa.
      See: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
1874  First Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Pennsylvania, for the Years 1871-72.
   Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  Harrisburg, PA:  B.F. Myers, State Printer.
1875  Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Statistics of Pennsylvania, for the Years 1873-74.
   Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  Harrisburg, PA:  B.F. Myers, State Printer.
1876  Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. for 1874-5, Part III, Industrial Statistics. Vol. 3.
   Harrisburg, PA:  B.F.Myers, State Printer.
1877 Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III, Industrial Statistics. Vol. IV, 1875-6.
   Harrisburg, PA:  B.F.Myers, State Printer.
1879 Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III, Industrial Statistics. Vol. VI, 1877-8.
   Harrisburg, PA: Lane S. Hart, State Printer & Binder.
1880 Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III, Industrial Statistics. Vol. VII, 1878-9.
   Harrisburg, PA: Lane S. Hart, State Printer & Binder.
1882 Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III, Industrial Statistics. Vol. IX, 1880-81.
   Harrisburg, PA: Lane S. Hart, State Printer & Binder.
1883 Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III, Industrial Statistics. Vol. X, 1881-82.
   Harrisburg, PA: Lane S. Hart, State Printer & Binder. [Contains the article:  The Iron and Steel Industries of Pennsylvania by James M. Swank, and historical notes on the Iron Industry.]
1888 Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III, Industrial Statistics. Vol. XV, 1887.  
   Harrisburg, PA: E.K.Myers, State Printer.
1895 Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III, Industrial Statistics. Vol. XXII, 1894.  
   Harrisburg, PA: Clarence M. Busch, State Printer of Pennsylvania.
[Reference Source:  Pennsylvania Division, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.]
Corbin, J.R.
1921 Pennsylvania Iron Ores.  
   Pennsylvania Geological Survey Bull. 20, 3p.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
1922  Bog-Iron Ore.  
   Pennsylvania Geological Survey Bull. 59, 5p.  Harrrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
1923  Brown Iron Ores in Pennsylvania.  
  Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Bull. 4th Ser., No. 61, 7p. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
1923  Magnetite in Pennsylvania.  
   Pennsylvania Geological Survey Bull. 4th Ser., No. 61, 6p. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Coventry Forge MSS
n.d.  Coventry Forge Account Book, 1789-1790.
   Chester, PA:  Chester County Historical Society.
Coxe, Tench
1814  A Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United States of America for the Year 1810.
     Philadelphia, PA:  n.p.
Craig, Harold M.
1932  The Iron Industry in Cambria County From the Founding to 1885.  
     Thesis, Gettysburg College.  Gettysburg, PA:  Gettysburg College.
Craig, Neville B.
1851  History of Pittsburgh.
      Pittsburgh, PA:  J.S. Davison, Publisher.  [(Craig,1851:212).  Mentions four hundred cannon balls being made by the Alliance Furnace.]
1854  Sketch of the Life and Services of Isaac Craig.
      Pittsburgh, PA:  J.S. Davison, Publisher.  [Contains material of interest in connection with the firm of Turnbull & Marmie and the Furnace at Jacob's Creek.]
Cremers, Estalle
n.d.  30,000 Acres:  The Story of Pikeland & Vincent Townships.
     n.p.:privately printed.
1986  Reading Furnace 1736.  
     Elverson, PA: Redding Furnace Press, RD 2, Box 385.
[An excellent, in depth, history of Reading Furnace, Chester Co., Pa.]
Croll, P. C.
1923  Annals of Womelsdorf, PA and Community, 1721-1923.
    Reading, PA:  Reading Eagle Press.  [(Croll,1923:42-49)  Contains information on Charming Forge, Berks Co.]
Cumings, W. L.
1933  The Cornwall Iron Mines near Lebanon, Pa.  
     published in "Mineral Deposits of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania":  International Geological Congress, 16 Sess., United States, Guidebook, Excursion A-8, p.48-54.
Curtin Iron Works Papers
n.d.    Curtin Iron Works Papers, 1770-1950.
   Milesburg, PA: Curtin Mansion Archives.
n.d.    Curtin Iron Works Papers, 1810-1941, MG 155.
    Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania State Archives, Historical and Museum Commission.
    micro-film copy, Special Collections, Pattee Library, Penn State University, University Park, PA
Cutcliffe, Stephen H.
1989a  Cambria Iron Company.  
     published in "Iron and Steel in the 19th century," pp.38-42.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paskoff, ed.
1989b  Robert Woolston Hunt, 1838-1923.  
     published in "Iron and Steel in the 19th century," pp.178-180.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paskoff, ed.
1989c  Daniel Johnson Morrell, 1821-1885.  
     published in "Iron and Steel in the 19th century," pp.255-257.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paskoff, ed.
1989d  Powell Stackhouse, 1840-1927.  
     published in "Iron and Steel in the 19th century," pp.255-257.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paskoff, ed.
1989e  Edward Y. Townsend, 1824-1891.  
     published in "Iron and Steel in the 19th century," pp.255-257.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paskoff, ed.
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Daddow, Samuel Harris and Benjamin Bannan
1866  Coal, Iron, and Oil.  
   Pottsville, PA: n.p.
Dahlinger, Charles W.
1922  Fort Pitt.  
   Pittsburgh, PA:  Privately printed.  [(Dahlinger,1902:80).  Contains mentions of the firm Turnbull & Marmie.]
Daily Commerical Journal (Newspaper)
v.d.  Daily Commerical Journal. (Newspaper).  
   various dates.  Pittsburgh, PA: n.p.
Dale Furnace MSS
n.d.  Dale Furnace Account Books, 1799-1801.
    In the Potts MSS Collection. Ledgers and Journal.  Philadelphia, PA:  Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Darlington, Mary Carson
1892  Fort Pitt and Letters from the Frontier.
   Pittsburgh, PA:  J.P.Weldin & Company.  [(Darlington,1892:259).  Contains letters dealing with Turnbull & Marmie's Company.]
Davis, A.J.
1887  History of Clarion County Pennsylvania:  
   With Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers.  Syracuse, NY:  D.Mason & Company, Publishers.
1969  History of Clarion Co., Pennsylvania:  
   with Illustrations 1887.  With Historical Supplement to 1969. reprint ed.  Rimersburg, PA:  Record Press, Ross B. Atchison
Davis, Christine E.
n.d.  Mt. Etna Iron Works.  
   An intensive documentation prepared for the HABS/HAER Division of the National Park Service.  Pittsburgh, PA:  Christine Davis Consultants.
1991  A Phase I/II Archaeological Survey of the Mill Creek Wastewater System, Huntingdon County.      Submitted by Christine E. Davis, Principal Investigator for Mill Creek Sewer Authority, May 28,1991.
Davis, Guy J.
1996 Iron Furnaces of Westmoreland County.
    Published in "Westmoreland History,"  publication of the Westmoreland County Historical Society.  Greensburg, PA:  Westmoreland County Historical Society
Davis, Tarring S. and Lucile Shenk
1931  A History of Blair County Pennsylvania.  
   Vol. 1. Harrisburg, PA:  National Historical Association, Inc. publishers.  [Reference copy in St. Vincent College Library, Latrobe, PA]
Day, Sherman
1841  Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania:  
   Containing a Copious Selection of the Most Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, Etc.  Relating to the Hitory and Antiquities, Both General and Local, with Topographical Descriptions of Every County and All the Larger Towns in the State.  Illustrated by 165 Engravings. Philadelphia, PA:  Published by George W. Gorton, 56 North Third Street.
[Reference copy source:  Greensburg Public Library, Greensburg, PA]
Dewees, John H.
1878  Report of Progress in the Juniata District on the Fossil Iron Ore Beds of Middle Pennsylvania,
   with a report on the Anglewick Valley and East Broad Top District, by C.A. Ashburner. 2nd Geological Survey of Pennsylvania 1874-75.  2nd Report of Progress F.  Harrisburg, PA: Board of Commissioners 2nd Geological Survey.
Dickinson College Library
1794  William Turnbull, Letter, Alliance IronWorks, William Turnbull to John Holker, Jan. 30, 1794.
    Dickinson College Library, Special Collections. [William Turnbull's letter on problems & plans for the Iron Works and for the distillery.]
Dickson, Harold E.
1866  The Baker Mansion, Altoona.  
    published in "Past & Present:"  A Bulletin for Members and Friends of the Blair County Historical Society, No. 8 (n.p.:Summer 1966)  Altoona, PA:  Blair County Historical Society.
d'Invilliers, E.V.
1883  Geology of Berks County.  
    Geology of the South Mountain Belt of Berks County.  2nd Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, Report of Progress D3, vol. 2, pt.I, 441p.  Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners 2nd Geological Survey.
1884a  The Brown Hematite (Limonite) Ores of the Siluro-Cambrian Limstone, No. II, of Centre County, Pa.  
    published in "Engineering Club of Philadelphia Proceedings."  v. 4, p.209-22.  Philadelphia, PA:  Engineering Club of Philadelphia.
1884b  The Geology of Centre County,
    with Appendix A.  Extracts from Report to Lyon, Shorb & Co. by J.P.Lesley.  Appendix B. Observations on the Geological Formations.  by A. L. Ewing.  2nd Geological Survey of Pennsylvania.  Report of Progress T4, 464p.  Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners Second Geological Survey.
1885  Nittany Valley Ores (Huntingdon County, PA).  
    2nd Geological Survey of Pennsylvaia.  Report of Progress T3, p.443-50.  Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners 2nd Geological Survey.
1886  The Cornwall Iron-Ore Mines, Lebanon County, Pa.  
    published in "Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Metal Engineers," v.14, p.873-904. New York, NY:  American Institute of Mining Engineers.
1887  Report on the Iron Ore Mines and Limestone Quarries of the Cumberland-Lebanon Valley.  
    Annual Report 2nd Geological Survey of Pennsylvania for 1886, Pt.4, p.1409-1567.  Harrisburg, PA: Board of Commissioners 2nd Geological Survey.
1891  Report of the Geology of the Four Counties, Union, Snyder, Mifflin, and Juniata.  
    2nd Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, Report of Progress, F3, 420p.  Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners 2nd Geological Survey.
Doc. Relating to the Manuf. of Iron PA.
   See: Iron Masters Association
Dunaway, Wayland F.
1935  A History of Pennsylvania.  
   New York, NY:  Prentice Hall Publishers.
Dunn, David W.
1993  Shade Furnace:  The First Iron Furnace in Somerset County.
   Published in "Daily American," June 6, 1993, page 10.
Somerset, PA: n.p.
Durham Iron Works MSS
n.d.  Durham Iron Works Records, 1778-1800.
    In the Backhouse MSS collections, Ledgers, account books, and journals.     :  Bucks County Historical Society.
Dyke, Samuel E.
1955  The History of a Flintlock Pistol and the Peter Grubbs of Cornwall.  
   published in "Papers of the Lancaster County Historical Society,"  Vol. LIX, No. 4 (1955), p.82-107.  Lancaster, PA: Lancaster County Historical Society.
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Eavenson, Howard N.
1942  The First Century and a Quarter of American Coal Industry.  
   Pittsburgh, PA: Privately printed, Koppers Building.
Eckel, Edwin C.
1914  Iron Ores, their Occurrence, Valuation and Control.
    New York, NY:  n.p.
Ege, T.P.
1911  History and Genealogy of the Ege Family.  
   Harrisburg, PA: n.p.
Eggert, Gerald G.
n.d.  Steelmasters and Labor Reform, 1886-1923
     n.p.: n.p.
1993 Harrisburg Industrializes, the Coming of Factories to an American Community.
    University Park, PA:  n.p.
1994 The Iron Industry in Pennsylvania.  With a Listing of National, State, and Private Sites Related to the Pennsylvania Iron Industry and Open to the Public.
     Pennsylvania History Studies No. 25, Published by "The Pennsylvania Historical Association,"  Harrisburg, PA: Penn State University- Harrisburg Campus.
1999  Making Iron on the Bald Eagle: Roland Curtin’s Ironworks and Workers’ Community.
    University Park, PA:  Pennsylvania State University Press
Egle, William H.
1883  History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  
   Philadelphia, PA: E.M.Gardner, Publisher.
Egleston, T.
1880 The American Bloomery Process for Making Iron Direct from the Ore.
   published in "Transactions of the American Institute of mining Engineers,"  vol.VIII, p.528.  n.p.: American Institute of Mining Engineers.
Ellis, Franklin, ed.
1882  History of Fayette County, Pennsylvania.  
   Philadelphia, PA: L.H.Everts & Company. [Contains short histories of the Iron Works in Fayette Couinty, Pennsylvania.]          
1883  History of Lancaster County.  
   with Illustrations.  Philadelphia, PA: L.H.Everts & Company.
Elsas, Madeleine, ed.
1960 Iron in the Making.  
    Dowlais Iron Company Letters 1782-1860.  London, England:  Glamorgiana County Council.
Engineers Society of Western Pennsylvania
1930 Pittsburgh.  
    Commemorating the Fifieth Anniversary of the Engineers Society of Western Pennsylvania.  November, 1930.  Pittsburgh, PA:  Engineers Society of Western Pennsylvania.
Evans, H. O.
1942 Iron Pioneer:  Henry W. Oliver, 1840-1904.  
   New York, NY:  n.p.
Evening Public Ledger (Newspaper)
1939 Evening Public Ledger.  
    Newspaper, various dates, refer to references.  Philadelphia, PA:  Evening Public Ledger Publishing Co.
Everts, Louis H.
1886  History of that Part of the Susquehanna & Juniata Valleys.
   Philadelphia, PA.:  Everts, Peck & Richard.
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Fackenthal, B.F., Jr.
1932  The Durham Iron Works.  
   Holicong, PA:  n.p.
1937  The Durham Iron Works in Durham Twp.  
   published in "Bucks County Historical Papers,"  V.7,1937:59-94.  n.p.: Bucks County Historical Society.
Fairchance Borough Centennial Committee
1989  Fairchance Throught the Years.  
   Fairchance, PA:  Fairchance Borough Centennial Committee.  (Ref. Source:  Uniontown Public Library, Uniontown, PA)
Farmer's Regiater (Newspaper)
v.d.  Farmer's Register.  
   Weekly Newspaper, various dates.  published by John M. Snowden. Greensburg, PA: Farmer's Register.
Fayette & Greene Spectator (Newspaper)
v.d.  Fayette & Greene Spectator.  
   Weekly Newspaper, various dates. published under various names. Uniontown, PA:  Fayette & Greene Spectator.
Fayette County Courthouse
1789a Fayette County Patent Books.  Fayette County Patent Book 15, Page 97.
      [Patent of Alliance Furnace lands to William Turnbull.]
1789b Fayette County Patent Books.  Fayette County Patent Book 17, Page 66.
      [Patent of Alliance Furnace Lands to William Turnbull.]
1789c Fayette County Deed Books.  Fayette County Deed Book B, p.39-40, 319.
1790a  Fayette County Patent Books.  Fayette County Patent Book 16, Page 256.
      [Patent of Alliance Furnace Lands to William Turnbull.]
1817  Fayette County Deed Books.  Fayette County Deed Book 15, Page 129-127.
      [Sale of Alliance Furnace lands by Col. Holker to Paca Smith & by Smith to Henry S. Weitzer.]
1935a Fayette County Deed Books.  Fayette County Deed Book 68, Page 107.
      [Lease of Alliance Furnace Lands from Jacobs Creek Oil Company to Peoples Natural Gas Company, Aug. 17, 1935.]
Fayette County Court Records
n.d.  Court of Quarter Sessions, Fayette County, PA.
    various dates & years.  Uniontown, PA:  Fayette County Courthouse.
1789 Fayette County Court Records.  Minutes June Term 1789, Court of Quarter Sessions.
    ["A view of a Road from the furnace on Jacob's Creek, to Thomas Kyle's Mill.]
1791  Fayette County Court Records. Minutes March Term 1791, Court of Quarters Sessions.
    ["The Petition for a road from Jacob's Creek Iron Works; to intersect the road leading to Mr. Thomas Kyle's Mill. - granted." ]
1797  Fayette County Court Records.  Minutes December Term 1797, Court of Quarter Sessions.
    [Viewers appointed by the court on a road from Turnbull's Iron Works by the Little Falls.]
1799a  Fayette County Court Records.  Minutes March Term 1799, Court of Quarter Sessions.
    [Viewed ground between Jacob's Creek Furnace & Road leading to Peterstown, agreed to public road from bridge across Jacob's Creek at Alliance Furnace.]
1799b  Fayette County Court Records. Minutes Sept. Term 1799, Court of Quarter Sesions.
     [Petition for vacating road from Col. Holker's Iron Works to near Laurel Hill Meeting House.]
Fayette County Tax Records
v.d. Fayette County Tax Records, Fayette County, PA.  
   Various dates & years.  Uniontown, PA:  Fayette County Courthouse.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
1974  Flood Hazard Boundary Maps, Township of Buffington, Indiana Co., Pennsylvania, 27 December, 1974.
    Washington, D.C.: Federal Emergency Management Agency. [Information on Eliza Furnace, Cambria/ Indiana Cos.]
Fell, James E., Jr.
1984 Iron From 'The Bend'; The Great Western & Brady's Bend Iron Companies.
   (Contains a history of Brady's Bend Iron Works.)  published in "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine," Oct. 1984, Vol 67, No. 3, pp.323-345.  Pittsburgh, PA: Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Fellner, Very Reverend Felix, O.S.B.
1954 The Loyalhanna Valley in History.
    Latrobe, PA:  St. Vincent College.  Originally published in the "Latrobe Bulletin," 1954.  [Reference Source:  St. Vincent College Library, Latrobe, PA.]
Fitzsimons, Gray, editor
1990  Blair County and Cambria County, Pennsylvania.  
   An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites.  Historic American Building Survey / Historic
   American Engineering Record. HABS/HAER, America's Industrial Heritage Project.
   Washington, D.C.:  National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
Fitzsimons, Gray; Kenneth D. Rose, Editors
1994 Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.
   An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites.  
   Edward K. Muller, Ronald C Carlisle, Principal Contract Historians; Christine Davis, Carmen DiCiccio,
   Contract Historians. Historic American Building Survey / Historic American Engineering Record.
   HABS/HAER, America's Industrial Heritage Project.  
   Washington, D.C.:  National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
Fletcher, R.V.
1947 The Iron and Steel Industry.
   Published by the Association of American Railroads, Railroad Committee for the Study of Transportation,
  April, 1947.  n.p.: Association of American Railroads.
Fletcher, Stevenson W.
1955  Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life, 1840-1940.
    Harrisburg, PA
Folke, Arthur Toye
1968  My Danville:  Historical Sketches of his Hometown of Danville, Pennsylvania.
   North Quincy, MA: Christopher Publishing.
1976 Picture Book for Proud Lovers of Danville, Montour County and Riverside, Pennsylvania.
   North Quincy, MA:  Christopher Publishing.
Folsom, Burton W.
1981  Urban Capitalists:  Entrepreneurs and City Growth in Pennsylvania's Lackawanna and Lehigh Region, 1800-1920.
   Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Foose, R. M.
1942  Geological History of Mineral Resources of Lancaster County, PA.
   published in "Pennsylvania Dept. of Internal Affairs Monthly Bulletin," V.10, No.6:3-10.
   Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Dept. of Internal Affairs.
1945  Iron-Maganese Ore Deposits at White Rocks, Cumberland County, PA.
   Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th Ser., Bull. M-26, 35p.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Frampton, Tracy E. and Jodie Molnar Hedrick
1989  Eliza Furnace, Historic Resource Survey, Form Number 063-BF-06.
    Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission.
Frazer, Persifor, Jr.
1877a  A Study of the Specular and Magnetic Iron Ores of the New Red Sandstone in York County, Pa.     published in "Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers," vol. 5, p.132-43.
    n.p.:  Amercian Institute of Mining Engineers.
1877b  Report of Progress in the Counties of York, Adams, Cumberland, and Frankin.  
   Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, p.201-39.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Second Geological Survey.
Frederick, Paul
1993 Looking for Venango County's Iron Furnaces.
   Published in "The Derrick," (Newspaper) Wednesday, Jan. 20,1993.  Oil City, PA:  The Derrick, Publishing Company.
Freedley, Edwin T.
1867  Philadelphia and Its Manufactures.
    Philadelphia, PA
French, Benjamin F.
1858 Iron Trade of the United States from 1621 to 1857.
   New York, NY:  Wiley & Halsted.
Frese, Mrs. Bernard Jr.
1930 Correspondence of Thomas J. Norris, Pres. of Jacob's Creek Oil Company.
   concerning Alliance Furnace, Fayette Co.  unpublished:  in authors collections.   [Correspondence of Thomas J. Norris concerning Alliance Furnace, and the history of the furnace.  Including pictures of the furnace site.]
Fritz, Brian L.
2001 Shade Furnace.  Somerset County's Early Iron Makin Community.
    Unpublished paper, Freshman English.
Fritz, John W.
1912 The Autobiography of John Fritz.
   New York, NY:  John Wiley.
Furey, J. Milton
1892 Historical & Biographical Work or Past & Present of Clinton County.
   Williamsport, PA: Pennsylvania Grit Printing Printing House.
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Gale, W. K. V.
1981  Ironmaking.  
   Haverdwest, UK:  Shire Publications Ltd.
Ganis, G. Robert
1988  Iron-Mining Store Scrip in Pennsylvania.
   Published in: Pennsylvania Geology, Vol. 19, No. 3, July, 1988, pp.2-5.  n.p.:  n.p.
Garbrick, Winona, ed.
1971  The Kernel of Greatness: An Informal Bicentennial History of Bedford County.
    State College, PA: Himes Printing Co., Inc.
Gates, John K.
1979  In Other Years:  Uniontown and Southern Fayette County.
    Uniontown, PA: Photographit.
Gebhardt, Harry L.
n.d.  Some Old Iron Furnaces of Western Pennsylvania.  
   Erie, PA: United Oil Manufacturing Company.
Gemmell, Alfred
1949  Dale Iron Works - Dale Furnace 1791-1822, Dale Forge 1804-1868.
   Published in "Berks County Historical Review," Vol. 14, 1949: pp.98-104, Reading, PA: Berks County Historical Society.
1949  The Charcoal Iron Industry in the Perkiomen Valley.
   Norristown, PA: n.p.
Genius of Liberty (Newspaper)
Genius of Liberty, and American Telegraph (Newspaper)
Genius of Liberty, and Fayette Advertiser (Newspaper)
Genius of Liberty, and Fayette and Greene Advertiser (Newspaper)
v.d. Genius of Liberty (Newspaper).  
   Uniontown Weekly Newspaper.  Published under various Headings during its life.  Various dates. Uniontown, PA:  Genius of Liberty Publishing Company. [Local period newspapers are a good source of information on the iron furnaces in the area.]  [Reference Source:  California University of Pennsylvania Library, California, Pa.] 
1807 Genius of Liberty & Fayette Advertiser (Newspaper), Uniontown, PA, May 20, 1807.
    [Ad.  FOR SALE -- Those Iron works with about Three Thousand Acres of land adjoining Jacob's Creek... know a by the name Alliance Iron Works;  & also stock on hand, &c. on liberal terms...  The premises will be shown by Mr. Stinchcomb, who resides thereon...  signed Saml. Hughes, Hagerstown, Maryland, dated March 23d, 1807.]
Geyer, Alan R., et. al.
1976 Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania.  
   Harrisburg, PA: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources.
Glessner, and Lehman
1985  Somerset County Historic Resource Survey: Shade Furnace.  Phase II Area.
    Cumberland Valley, Vol.2, Somerset County Planning Commission. Somerset, PA:  n.p.
Goodyear, B. K.
1903  Blast Furnaces of Cumberland County.  
   Pamphlet.  Paper read before Hamilton Library Association Carlisle, Pa.  Carlisle, PA:  Hamilton Library.
Gordon, Robert B.
1992 Anthracite Iron in Pennsylvania, A New American Technology.
   Unpublished paper, presented at the Pennsylvania Historical Association Conference, Villanova University,       October, 1992.
Gordon, Robert B. and Patrick M. Malone
1994  The Texture of Industry:  An Archaeological View of the Industrialization of North America.           New York, NY - Oxford, UK:  Oxford University Press.
Graeber, C.K. & R.M. Foose
1942 Iron Ores:  Geology and Mineral Resources of the Brookville Quadrangle, Pa.  
   Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th Ser., Topog. and Geol. Atlas, No. 54, p.123.  Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Gray, Carlyle and Davis M. Lapham
1961  Guide to the Geology of Cornwall, PA.  
   Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Bulletin G35.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Graybill, Benjamin Landis
1966  History of Allegheny Furnace.  
   Published in "Past and Present," Bulletin for members and friends of the Blair County Historical Society, No. 8 (n.p.:Summmer:14-22).   Altoona, PA:  Blair County Historical Society.
Gremmell, Alfred
1949 The Charcoal Iron Industry in the Perkiomen Valley.  
   Norristown, PA:  n.p. [An interesting regional study of the iron industry.]
Grittinger, Henry C.
1901 Cornwall Furnace and Cornwall Ore Banks or Mine Hills.
    published in "The Lebanon Courier,"  Lebanon, Pa: Lebanon Courier, newspaper.
1901 Cornwall Furnace and The Cornwall Ore Banks or Mine Hills.  
    published in "Lebanon County Historical Society Papers,"  V.II, No. 1.  Lebanon, PA:  Lebanon County Historical Society.
1906 The Iron Industries of Lebanon County.  
    published in "Lebanon County Historical Papers," V.III, No. 1, 1906: p.3-30.  Lebanon, PA: Lebanon County Historical Society.
1915 A Short History of the Ownership of the Cornwall Ore Banks or Mine Hills.  
    Lebanon, PA:  n.p.
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Habecker, Jan Margut
1987 A Dynasty Tumbles.  
    published in "Pennsylvania Heritage," vol. IIII, No. 1 (Winter 1987), pp.10-15. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission.
Hain, H. H.
1922  History of Perry County, Pennsylvania.
   Including Descriptions of Indian and Pioneer Life from the time of earliest settlement, Sketches of its Noted Men and Women and Many Professional Men.  Harrisburg, PA: Hain-Moore Company, Publishers.
Hamilton, Alrexander (Col.)
1824 Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on Manufacture, 1791.  
   Philadelphia, PA: Library Company of Philadelphia.
Hamilton, Alexander, Dr., Itinerarium
1907 A Narrative of a Journey Through Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania to New Hampshire & Back in 1744.  
   St. Louis:  n.p.  
[Reference Source: U.S. Army Military History Research Collection, Carlisle, Pa.]
Harden, J. W.
1871 The Brown Hematite Ore-deposits of South Mountain, between Carlisle, Waynesborough, and the Southeastern edge of Cumberland Valley.  
   Published in "American Institute Mining Metall. Transactions," v. 1, pp.136-43.  n.p.: Am. Inst Min. Metall. Eng. Trans.
Harder, E. C.
1910 Deposits of Brown Iron Ore Near Dillsburg, York County, Pa.  
   U.S. Geological Bulletin 430, pp.250-55.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey. 
1910  Structure and Orgin of the Magnetite Deposits Near Dillsburg, York County, Pa.  
   Published in "Econ. Geology,"  v.5:pp599-622.  n.p.:  Econ. Geology.
Harman, J. Paul
1952 Stone Stack Smlting Furnaces in Westmoreland County.  
   published in "Pennsylvania History,"  v.19, no. 2, April,  Quarterly Journal of the Pennsylvania Historical Association.  Gettsburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical Association.
Harris, Isaac
1828  Harris' Directory of Pittsburgh and Vicinity.
   Pittsburgh, PA: n.p.
1837  Harris' Directory of Pittsburgh and Vicinity.
   Pittsburgh, PA: n.p.
Harshbarger, Jean P., Nancy R. Taylor and Sara H. Zabriskie
1975  Hartslog Heritage.
    State College, PA:  Alexandria Bicentennial Committee, K-B Offset Printing, Inc..
Hart, J. Percy
1904 Hart's History and Directory of the Three Towns, Brownsville, Bridgeport, West Brownsville.
   Also Abridged History of Fayette County & Western Pennsylvania.  Cadwallader, PA:  J. Percy Hart.
Hartley, E. Neal
1957 Ironworks on the Saugus:  The Lynn and Braintree Ventures of the Company of Undertakers of the Ironworks in New England.  
   Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
Harvey, David
1988 Reconstructing the American Bloomery Process.  
    published in "Colonial Williamsburg Historic Trades Annual,"  Vol. 1, Williamsburg, VA:  The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Drawer C., Williamsburg, VA  23197.
[A good article explaining the bloomery process of making iron.]
Harvey, Katherine A.
1969  The Best-Dressed Miners.  
   Life and Labor in the Maryland Coal Region, 1835-1910.  Ithaca, NY:  Cornell University Press.
1977 The Lonaconing Journals:  The Founding of a Coal and Iron Community 1837-1840.  
    published as "Transations of the American Philosphical Society," Vol. 67, Part 2, 1977.  Philadelphia, PA:  The American Philosphical Society, Independence Square.
[Excellent history of an early iron community, must reading for any serious student of the stone blast furnace iron manufacture.]
Hawks, Catherine
1978  Westmoreland County Iron Furnaces.
    Notes on the Iron Industry in the Ligonier Valley 1792 - 1863.  Published in "The Trowel," Vol. III, No. 2, Feb./Mar. 1978. Bulletin of the Westmoreland Archaeological Society, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. New Alexandria, PA: Westmoreland Archaeological Society.
Hawks, H.E.
1945 Magnetic Anomaly Near Bechtelville, PA
    U.S. Geological Survey. Prelim Report, 2pp., 2maps.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey.
Hay Creek Valley Historical Association
n.d.  Joanna Furnace, Ledgers & Accounts.
    Mss. Collection relating to Joanna Furnace, Berks County, Pennsylvania.  Joanna Furnace (1792) Restoration and Historical Museum. Geigertown, PA:  Hay Creek Valley Historical Association.
Hayden, Horace E.
1906 Genealogical and Family History of Wyoming and Lackawanna Valleys.
    New York, NY:  Lewis Publishing.
Hazard, Samuel
1828  The Register of Pennsylvania, January, 1828.
    n.p.: n.p.
Hermitage Furnace Ledgerbook
1810-11 Hermitage Furnace Ledgerbook, 1810-1811, Ligonier, PA.
    In the Archives of Fort Ligonier Museum.  Ligonier, PA:  n.p.
Heald, Sarah H., editor
1990 Fayette County, Pennsylvania.  An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites.  
    with contributions by Christine E. Davis, Gray Fitzsimons, Sarah H. Heald, and Rolla L. Queen.  Historic American Building Survey / Historic American Engineering Record. HABS/HAER,  America's Industrial Heritage Project.  Washington, D.C.:  National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior.  [Contains a short history & location of Alliance Iron Works.  Contains data relating to the date of construction of the furnace, that has been interpreted incorrectly.]
Heathecote, Charles
1912  A History of Chester County, "Industries."
    Harrisburg, PA:  National Historical Association, Inc.
1936  The Iron Industries of North Chester County.
    Published in "The Bulletin,"  publication of the Chester County Historical Society.  n.p.:  Chester County Historical Society.
Heite, Edward F.
1974  The Delmarve Bog Iron Industry.
    Published in "Early American Ironmaking,"  Vol. III (Fall), 1974:18-34.
Heitmann, John A.
1989  Peter Shoenberger, 1782-1854.
    Published in: "Iron and Steel in the Nineteenth Century, Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography," Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. & Facts on File, Inc.
Henderson, A. A.
1858  Geology of Pennsylvania.  2 Vols.
    n.p.:  n.p.
Hermelin, S. G.
1783  Report of the Mines in the United States of America, 1783.
    n.p.:  n.p.
1931  Report of the Mines in the United States of America, 1783.  by S.G. Hermelin.
    Translated from the Swedish by Amandus Johnson.  Philadalphia, PA:  n.p.
Hetrick, Calvin W.
1961 The Iron King:  The Story Dr. Peter Shoenberger, Early Ironmaster of Central Pennsylvania - His Industrial Empire, His Family, His Times.
    Martinsburg, PA:  Morrisons Cove Herald.
Hickok, W. O.
1932  Iron Ores, Present and Future.  Pennsylvania Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 6p.
    Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Topographic and Geological Survey.
1933  The Iron Ore Deposits at Cornwall, PA.
    Published in:  "Economic Geology," vol. 28, no. 3, 1933:193-255.  n.p.:  Economic Geology.
1939  Iron Ores of Pennsylvania.  Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th Series, Bulletin M18-B, pp.1-21.
    Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Topographic and Geological Survey.
Hickok, W. O. and F.T. Moyer
1940  Geology and Mineral Resources of Fayette County, Pennsylvania.  Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th Series, Bulletin C26, Dept. of Interior Affairs.
    Harrisburg, PA:  Topographic and Geological Survey.
Historic American Building Survey
1961  Charming Forge, Iron Master's House.  HABS No. PA-1022.
    Washington, D.C.:  Historic American Building Survey
Hogan, William T.
1971 Economic History of the Iron and Steel Industry in the United States.
    Lexington, MA:  D.C. Hearth & Co., Lexington Books.
Hopkins, G. M.
1872  Atlas of the County of Fayette and State of Pennsylvania.
    Philadelphia, PA:  G.M.Hopkins.
Hotz, P. E.
1950  Diamond Drill Exploration of the Dillsburg Magnetite Deposits, York County, Pennsylvania.  U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 969-A, pp.1-27.
    Washington, D.C.:  United States Geological Survey.
Hughes, George W.
1931 The Pioneer Iron Industry in Western Pennsylvania.
    Published in "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine,"  Vol. 14, 1931:207-224.  Pittsburgh, PA:  Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Hugins, Walter
1983  Hopewell Furnace, Handbook 124.  A guide to Hopewell National Historical Site.  Pt. 2, The Story of a 19th-century Ironmaking Community.
    Washington, D.C.:  National Park Service.
Hunt, Robert W.
1892  Evolution of the American Rolling Mill.
    Published in "Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers," Vol. 13, 1892:45-69.
    n.p.:  American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Hunter, Louis C.
1930 Financial Problems of the Early Pittsburgh Iron Manufacturers.  
    Reprinted from "The Journal of Economics and Business History," Vol. 11, No. 3, May, 1930.  n.p.: n.p.
1973  Studies in the Economic History of the Ohio Valley.  New York, NY:  Da Capo Press
1979  A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1780-1930, Volume One:  Waterpower in the Century of the Steam Engine.  Charlottesville, VA:  University Press of Virginia.
Huntingdon County Courthouse
Huntingdon County Court of Quarter Sessions
Huntingdon County Courthouse
Huntingdon County Deed Books
n.d.  Deed Books with information on Cove Forge, Huntingdon County. Deed Books, C-202, E-354, M-112.
    Available at Huntingdon County Courthouse.  Huntingdon, PA: n.p.
n.d.  Deed Books with information on Mt. Etna Furnace, Huntingdon County Deed Books: C-202, E-354, M-112,  R-1:226, S-1:142, V-1:85.
    Available at Huntingdon County Courthouse.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Courthouse.
Huntingdon County Courthouse
Huntingdon County Tax Assessments
n.d.  Huntingdon County Tax Assessments for Barree Township, 1847-1870.
    Available at Huntingdon County Historical Society.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Historical Society.
n.d.  Huntingdon County Tax Assessments for Barree and Jackson Townships, 1834-1876.
    Available at Huntingdon County Historical Society.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Historical Society.
n.d.  Huntingdon County Tax Assessments for Barree, West and Porter Townships, 1796-1876.
    Available at Huntingdon County Historical Society.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Historical Society.
n.d.  Huntingdon County Tax Assessments for Franklin Township, 1790-1833.
    Available at Huntingdon County Historical Society.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Historical Society.
n.d.  Huntingdon County Tax Assessments for Franklin Township, 1800-1876.
    Available at Huntingdon County Historical Society.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Historical Society.
n.d. Huntingdon County Tax Assessments for Porter Township, 1834-1876.
    Available at Huntingdon County Historical Society.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Historical Society.
n.d.  Huntingdon County Tax Assessments for Shirley and Cromwell Townships, 1830-1876.
    Available at Huntingdon County Historical Society.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Historical Society.
n.d. Huntingdon County Tax Assessments for Union & Todd Townships, 1796-1876.
    Available at Huntingdon County Historical Society.  Huntingdon, PA: Huntingdon County Historical Society.
Huntingdon County Historical Society
n.d.  Shoenberger Family Collections. [Contains material on Huntingdon Furnace.]
    Huntingdon, PA:  Huntingdon County Historical Society Archives.
1977-1980  Barree Township, Huntingdon County Sites Survey, 1977-80.
    Huntingdon, PA:  Huntingdon County Historical Society.
Huntingdon Semi-Weekly News. (Newspaper)
1880  Huntingdon Semi-Weekly News, Vol. 7, #52, September 13, 1880.
   Huntingdon, PA:  n.p.
Huston, Stewart
1943  The Iron Industry of Chester County.
    Published in "Southeastern Pennsylvania," J. Bennet Nolan, ed., Vol. 1,   Philadelphia, PA:  Lewis Historical Publishing Company.
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Ingham, John N.
1978 The Iron Barons, A Social Analysis of an American Urban Elite, 1874-1965.
    Westport, CT:  n.p.
1991 Making iron and Steel, Independent Mills in Pittsburgh, 1820-1920.
    Columbus, OH:  Ohio State University Press
Inners, Jon D.
1986 Mount Etna Furnace Plantation, Blair County.  
    published in "Pennsylvania Geology," 17 (April, 1986:2-6).  n.p.: Pennsylvania Geology.
Iron Masters Association
1849 Proceeding of the Iron Convention.  Held at Pittsburgh, November 21st, 22d and 23d, 1849.
    Pittsburgh, PA:  Kennedys Franklin Printing House.  
    [Reference source: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Collections, Pittsburgh, PA.]
1850 Documents Relating to the Manufacture of Iron in Pennsylvania.  [Doc. Relating to Manuf. of Iron PA].
    [Contains: A Detailed Statement of all the Charcoal Cold Blast Furnaces in Western Pennsylvania in the Year 1850.; A Detailed Statement of all the Cold Blast Charcoal Furnaces in Eastern Pennsylvania, in the Year 1850.;  A Detailed Statement of all the Hot Blast Charcoal Furnaces in Eastern Pennsylvania, in the Year 1850. Phildaelphia, PA:  Convention of Prennsylvania Iron Masters.]
[Referenced as: Doc. Relating to Manuf. of Iron PA.]
[Reference Source:  Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Collections, Pittsburgh, PA.]
Iscrupe, Shirley G. McQuillis
1988  Some Brief Notes on the Iron Furnaces in Ligonier Valley, Westmoreland County.
   n.p.:  n.p.
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Johnstown Flood Museum
n.d.  The Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collections:  Map of Juniata Limestone Company.
   Johnstown, PA:  Archives of the Johnstown Flood Museum.
1919  Map of Cambria Iron Works Properties.
   Johnstown, PA:  Archives of the Johnstown Flood Museum.
Jones, Griffth W.
n.d.  Griffith W. Jones Collection Concerning Iron Ore Furnaces, 1866-1890.
     In the Penn State University Library, Historical Coll./ Labor Archives, University Park, PA.  [Contains data on Norway Furnace, Berks Furnace & Warwick Furnace, includes a photo of Warwick Furnace underconstruction ca.1875.]
Jones, U. J.
1856  History of the Early Settlement of the Juniata Valley.
    Philadelphia, PA:  n.p.
Jordan, John W.
1913  A History of the Juniata Valley and its People.
   New York, NY:  Lewis Historical Publishing Company.
Jordan, William A., ed.
1971  The Official Program of the 1971 Bicentennial.
    Bedford, PA:  Bedford County Bicentennial Committee.
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King, C. D.
1948  Seventy-five Years of Progress in Iron and Steel:  Manufacture of Coke, Pig Iron, and Steel Ingots.
     New York, NY:  Seeley W. Mudd Fund, AIME.
Kingston, Joseph T., ed.
1971 Archaeological Assist: Parting Time's Curtains At Curtin Furnace Site.
   Published in, "Pennsylvania Heritage," Vol. 5, No. 1, December, 1971.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. [A short report of the salvage archaeology done at Curtin Iron Works, Centre Co.]
Klein, Philip S., ed.
1985  The Centre Furnace Story, A Return to Our Roots. by Sylvester K. Stevens.
     Edited and Expanded by Philip S. Klein.  State College, PA:  n.p.
Knepp, Thomas H. and George G. Griffith
1929  Greenwood Furnace, Yesterday and Today.
   n.p.: n.p.
Knopf,
1953  Issac Craig Collection.
    n.p.:  n.p.  [Contains a collection of correspondence concerning Alliance Furnace.]
Kochor, A Lawrence
1921  Early Architecture of Pennsylvania.
    Published in "Architectural Record," Part 2, Vol.XLXX, 1921.
    n.p.:  n.p.  [(Kochor,1921:92-93)  Contains information on Charmiing Forge, Berks Co.]
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Leighty, Elmer
1945 East Freedom and Freedom Township.
    Published in "Blair County's First Hundred Years," pp.49-53. George A. Wolf, ed.  Hollidaysburg, PA: Blair County Historical Society.
Lemick, Edward J.
1974 Early American Iron Making.
   Published in "Northeast Historical Archaeology," Fall, 1974. n.p.: n.p.
Lesley, J.P.
1859  The Iron Manufacturer's Guide to the Furnaces, Forges, and Rolling Mills of the United States, with Descussions of Iron as a Chemical Element, and American Ore, and a Manufactured Article, in Commerce and in History.  
   New York, NY - London, UK:  Trubner & Company
Lewis, W. David
1976  Iron and Steel in America.
     Greenville, DE:  The Eleutherian Mills-Hagley Foundation.
Linaberger, James
1964 The Rolling Mill Riots of 1850.
     Published in "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magaznie,"  Vol.47, Jan. 1964:1-18.   Pittsburgh, PA: Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Linn, John Blair
1883  History of Centre and Clinton Counties, Pennsylvania.
    Philadelphia, PA:  Louis H. Everts.
1975  History of Centre and Clinton Counties, Pennsylvania.
    Reprint:  Evansville, IN
Livesay, Harold C.
1971 Marketing Patterns in the Antebellum American Iron Industry.
    Published in "Business History Review, " Vol. 45, Autumn, 1971: 270-95. n.p.:  n.p.
1975 Andrew Carnegie and the Rise of Big Business.
    Boston, MA:  n.p.
Lytle, Milton Scott
1876   History of Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania.
     Lancaster, PA:  William H. Roy Publisher.
Malsberger, John W.
1989  Allentown Rolling Mills.
    Published in "Iron & Steel in the 19th century," pp.15-16, Encyclopedia of American Business History & Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. & Facts on File, Inc.
1989  Philip Benner, 1762-1832.
   Published in "Iron & Steel in the 19th century," pp.30-32, Encyclopedia of American Business History & Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. & Facts on File, Inc.
1989  Bethlehem Iron Company.
   Published in "Iron & Steel in the 19th century," pp.33-36, Encyclopedia of American Business History & Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. & Facts on File, Inc.
1989  David Thomas, 1794-1882.
   Published in "Iron & Steel in the 19th century," pp.333-336, Encyclopedia of American Business History & Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. & Facts on File, Inc.
1989  Catassuqa Manufacturing Company
   Published in "Iron & Steel in the 19th century," pp.82-83, Encyclopedia of American Business History & Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. & Facts on File, Inc.
Matthews, Alfred & Austin N. Hungerford
1884 History of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon.  
   Philadelphia, PA: Everts & Richards.
Maynard, D. S.
1877  Industries and Institutions of Centre County.  with Historical Sketches of Principal Villages, &c.            Bellefonte, PA:  Richie & Maynard Publishers, Republican JobPrinting House.
McCauley, T.H.  
1878  Historical Sketch of Franklin County, Pennsylvania.  
   Prepared for the Centennial Celebration, Held at Chamberburg, PA , July 4, 1876.  Second Ed., Enlarged. Harrisburg, PA:  Patriot Publishing Company.
McClenathan, J.C., William A. Edie, Ellis B. Burgess, J. Aloysius Coll and Eugen T. Norton.
1906  Centennial History of the Borough of Connellsville Pennsylvania 1806-1906.
     Columbus, OH:  Champlin Press.
McCormick, S. B.
1868  Sketch of Johnstown and Suburbs and the Cambria Iron Works.
    Pittsburgh, PA:  Barr & Myers.
McGraw, Harry A.
1945 The Iron Industry in Blair County, Part I.
   Published in "Blair County's First  Hundred Years," pp.381-387, George A. Wolf, ed.  Hollidaysburg, PA: Blair County Historical Society.
McCreath, Andrew S.
1879  Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania:  1876-8.  MM
     Second Report of Progress in the Laboratory of the Survey:  Chemical Analyses.  Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners the Second Geological Survey.
[Data on many of the Iron Furnaces in Pennsylvania, which are not mentioned in other reports.  Information on Ben's Creek, Black Lick, Blair, Bloomfield, Buene Vista, Cambria Iron Company, Center (Centre), Chickies Iron Company, Clarksville, Dunbar, Etna Iron Works, Fayette, Flanklin Forge, Frankstown, Grenwood, Hermitage, hope, Kemble, Laurel Hill, Laurel Run, Lemont, Little, Mill Creek, Monroe, Mt. Etna, Mount Pleasant, Mt. Vernon, Oak Grove, Oliphant, Pine Creek, Ritter, Rodman, Ross, Sarah, Schoenberger's (Lockport), Shade, Springfield, South Mountain Iron Company, Thomas Iron Company, Union, Washington, Williamsburg, and Winfield Furnaces.]
1879-80  Analysis of Iron Ores of Pennsylvania.  in Third Report of Progress in the Laboratory of the Survey at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 2d Report of Progress MMM, pp.1-55.  
   Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
McHugh, Jeanne
1980  Alexander Holley and the Making of Steel.
     Baltimore, MD:  Johns Hopkins University Press.
McLane, Louis
1833  Documents Relative to the Manufactures of the United States.  
     Vol. 2 or 4 Vols.  n.p.:n.p.
1969  Documents Relative to the Manufactures of the Uited States.  reprint edition in 3 Vols.  New York,       NY:  Augustus Kelly; Burt Franklin.
McLaughlin & Kinter
1858  Map of Fayette County, Pennsylvania.
   Philadelphia, PA:  William J. Barker.
 [Reference Source:  Copy in the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C..]
McLaurin, J.J.
1890  The Story of Johnstown:  Its Early Settlement, Rise and Progress, Industrial Growth, and Appalling Flood on 31st, 1889.
     Harrisburg, PA:  James M. Place, Publisher.
Mercer, Henry C.
1899  The Decorated Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania Germans.
     Doylestown, PA:  Bucks County Historical Society.
1914  The Bible in Iron, or Pictured Stoves and Stove Plates of the Pennsylvania Germans.
     Doylestown, PA:  Bucks County Historical Society.  [A well-illustrated study of early stove plate castings.]
Metz, W. Ray
1945  A Chronological History of Williamsburg.
    Published in "Blair County's First Hundred Years," pp.81-88. George A. Wolf, ed.  Hollidaysburg, PA: Blair County Historical Society.
Meyer, Abraham
1882  On the fossil Ores of Lycoming County, Pa.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Academy of Natural Science, Philadelphia Proceedings, p.52.
Michaux, F. A.
1805  Travels to the West of the Allegheny Mountains.
     London,UK:  n.p.
Miller, B.L.
1925  Mineral Resources of the Allentown Quadrangle.
     Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th Series, Topographic and Geological Atlas, No. 206, pp.29,33-70.  Harrrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Miller, Clara Huston
1930  Reminiscences.
     n.p.:  n.p.  [Contains information on Brandywine Rolling Mills.]
Montgomery, Morton L.
1886  History of Berks County in Pennsylvania.
     Philadelphia,PA:  Everts, Peck, and Richards.
1909  Historical and Biographical Annals of Berks County Pennsylvania.    Embracing A Concise History of the County and a Genealogical and Biographical Record of Representative Families.
      In Two Vols.  Chicago, IL:  J.H.Beers & Company.
Morgan, George H.
1858  Annals, Comprising Memoirs, Incidents and Statistics of Harrisburg,  from the Period of its First Settlement.
     Harrisburg, PA:  published by Geo. A. Brooks.
1987  Annals of Harrisburg,Dauphin County, Pennsylvania.
     reprint Edition of the 1858 edition, with additions by William L. Iscrupe and Shirley G. Iscrupe.  Laughlintown, PA:  Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services. 
Morison, Elting E.
1966  Men, Machines, and Modern Times.
     Cambridge, PA:  MIT Press
1974  From Know How to Nowhere.
     New York, NY:  Basic Books.
Morning Herald (Newspaper)
1961  Morning Herald, (Newspaper), 18 November, 1961. Uniontown, PA:  Morning Herald Publishing                Company. 
Morris, et. al.
1987 The Hermitage of Ross Mountain Club 1887-1987.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Image Innovators.
Morrison, Donald C.
1983  Dunbar 1883-1983:  The Furnace Town.
     Connellsville, PA:  Centennial Book Committee.
Morrison's Cove Herald (Newspaper)
n.d.  Morrison's Cove Herald.  (Newspaper), Blair County.
     Williamsburg, PA: Morrison's Cove Herald Publishing Company.  [Photos of Canoe Furnace.]
[Reference Source:  Photocopy in the Collections of the Williamsburg Historical Society, Williamsburg, PA.]
Mount Etna Coalition
1990  Study of Alternatives, Mount Etna Iron Furnace Complex.  America's Industrial Heritage Project Southwestern Pennsylvania.
     Southwest Pennsylvania Heritage Preservation Commission, Mount Etna Coalition.  Washington, D.C.:  United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service.
Mountain Sentinel (Newspaper)
v.d.  Mountain Sentinel. (Newspaper)
    various dates, and articles on the iron industry in Cambria County, refer to the references for the dates.
    Ebenburg, PA:  Mountain Sentinel Publishing Company.
Mulkearn, Lois and Edwin V. Pugh
1954  Traveler's Guide to Historic Places in Western Pennsylvania.
     Pittsburgh, PA:  University of Pittsburg Press.  [Contains a short overview of the historic furnaces and a travel guide to some of the Iron Furnaces in Western Pennsylvania.]
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Nearhoof, Elizabeth
1968  Echoes from Warriors Mark, Pennsylvania, and Surrounding Areas.
     Boalsburg, PA:  Printed privately.
Needham, M.
1831  The Manufacture of Iron.
     London, UK:  n.p.
Neumann, G.L.
1947  Investigation of the Dillsburg Magnetite Deposits, York County, Pa.
     U.S. Bureau of Mines, Report Inv. 4145.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Bureau of Mines.
Nevin, R. P.
1888  Les Trois Rois.
     Pittsburgh, PA:  n.p.    [(Nevin,1888:57-58). Contains the false story of the Legend of Peter Marmie and his hounds, leaping into the mouth of Alliance Furnace.]
Nichols, Beach
1873  Atlas of Blair and Huntingdon Counties, From Actual Surveys by and Under the Direction of Beach Nichols.
     Philadelphia, PA:  A. Pomeroy and Company
Nolan, V. Bennet, ed.
1943  Southeastern Pennsylvania.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Lewis.   [Contains the article, "The Iron Industry of Chester County." by Stewart Huston.]
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Oblinger, Carl
1984  Cornwall, The People and Culture of an Industrial Camelot, 1890-1980.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Old Home Week Celebration
1915  A Furnace Plant with a History, Dunbar, Pa.
     Dunbar, PA:  Souvenir Program, Old Home Week Celebration.  [Contains a story of Dunbar Furnace Company, Dunbar, Fayette Co., PA.]
Olson, Margaret and Robert
1982  A Glimpse of Mercer County.
     Published in "Pennsylvania Heritage," Winter, 1982, pp.2-8.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Orbisonia Bi-Centennial Committee
1960  Orbisonia Area Bi-Centennial.
    Orbinsonia, PA:  The Bi-Centennial Committee.
Overman, Frederick
1850 The Manufacture of Iron, in All its Various Branches.
     Philadelphia, PA:  H.C.Baird
1850  A Treatise on Metallurgy.
    New York, NY:  n.p.
1882  A Treatise on Metallurgy.  6th ed.
     New York, NY:  D. Appleton and Company.
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P.H.M.C.
See: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Packard, Vance and John Tyler
n.d.  Report on the Archaeological and Historical Work at the Eagle Iron Works, Curtin, Pennsylvania.
     MSS, Archives, Archaeological Section, William Penn Memorial Museum.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.  [One of the few archaeological reports of the excavation of a charcoal stone blast furnace in Pennsylvania.]
Parks, Richard R.
1978  Venango County Iron Furnaces.
     A Guide to their locations.   Franklin, PA: privately published.
Paskoff, Paul F., Ed.
1983 Industrial Evolution, Organization, Structure, and Growth of the Pennsylvania Iron Industry, 1750-1860.
    Baltimore, MD:  The John Hopkins University Press.
1989 Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography:  Iron and Steel in the Nineteenth Century.
    New York, NY and Oxford, UK:  n.p.
Pearse, John Bernard
1876  A Concise History of the Iron Manufacture of the American Colonies up to the Revolution, and of Pennsylvania Until the Present Time.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Allen, Lane, & Scott, Publishers and Printers.
Pechin, E.C.
1875  The Minerals of Southwestern Pennsylvania.
     Published in "Engineers Transactions," vol. 3, pp.399-409., American Institute of Mining Metall.  n.p.:  American Institute of Mining Engineers.
Peets, Robert G.
1957  Mining History at Cornwall, Pa.
     Cornwall, PA:  Bethlehem Mines Corporation.
1970  Mining History at Cornwall, Pa. Revised Ed.
     Cornwall, PA:  Bethlehem Mines Corporation.
Peirce, Patricia
1950  Iron and Copper Mining in Caernarvon Township.
     Published in "Historical Review of Berks County," Oct.-Dec., 1950, pp.12-15; 25-31.  Reading, PA:  Historical Review of Berks County.
Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of
   See: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania Board of Centennial Managers
1878  Pennsylvania and The Centennial Exposition:  Comprising the Preliminary and Final Reports of the Pennsylvania Board of Centennial Managers, Made to the Legislature at the Sessions of 1877-78.  Vol.1, Part 1.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Gillin & Nagle.   [The section on Ironmaking in Pennsylvania was written by Swank.]
Pennsylvania Chronicle (Newspaper)
v.d.  Pennsylvania Chronicle.  (Newspaper).
     Philadelphia, PA:  Pennsylvania Chronicle Publishing Company.  [Newspapers printed at various dates, refer to the references.]
Pennsylvania Gazette (Newspaper)
1790  Pennsylvania Gazette (Newspaper), Philadelphia, PA, Dec. 8, 1790.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Pennsylvania Gazette Publishing Company.  [Under Date Line Nov. 13, 1790...  furnace lately erected by William Turnbull and Company... Jacob's Creek, about 15 miles above the Youghiogheny River, began the blast the 1st. instant (Nov. 1, 1790)...  metal being tried in their forge the same day...]
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
n.d.  Pennsylvania Archaeological Site Survey, William Penn Memorial Museum, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
     Harrisburg, PA:  William Penn Memorial Museum.  [Referenced as P.H.M.C.]
Pennsylvania Packet (Newspaper)
1788  Pennsylvania Packet. Weekly Newspaper.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Pennsylvania Packet Publishing Company.
Pennsylvania Railroad Company
1857  Tenth Annual Report of the Directors of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company to the Stockholders.
     February 1, 1857.  Philadelphia, PA:  Crissy & Markley, Printers.
Pennsylvania Society of the Colonial Dames of America
1914  Forges and Furnaces in the Province of Pennsylvania.
    Philadelphia, PA:  Committee on Historical Research, Society of the Colonial Dames of America.
Pennsylvania State Archives
n.d.  Manuscript Collections, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
     MSS are listed under the various furnaces and forges.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania State Archives, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Pennypacker, Samuel W.
1872  Annals of Phoenixville.
     Philadelphia, PA:  n.p.
Perry Forester (Newspaper)
v.d.  Perry Forester, (Newspaper)
     Various dates, refer to references for furnaces.  Perry County, PA:  Perry Forester Publishiing Company.
Perryopolis Area Sesquicentennial Committee
1964  Perryopolis Area Sesquicentennial 1814-1964.
    Perryopolis, PA:  Perryopolis Sesquicentennial Committee.
Peters, Richard, Jr.
1921  Two Centuries of Iron Smelting in Pennsylvania.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Pulaski Iron Works.  [A very good reference to various iron furnaces in Pennsylvania. Contains a wealth of pictures.]
Pittsburgh American (Newspaper)
v.d.  Pittsburgh American. (Newspaper).
     Pittsburgh, PA:  Pittsburgh American Publishing Company.  [Contains articles and mentions of the iron works at various dates, refer to the references for each iron works.]
Pittsburgh Commerical (Newspaper)
v.d.  Pittsburgh Commerical. (Newspaper).
     Pittsburgh, PA:  Pittsburgh Commerical Publishing Company.  [Contains articles and mentions of the iron works at various dates, refer to the references for each iron works.]
Pittsburgh Dispatch (Newspaper)
v.d.  Pittsburgh Dispatch. (Newspaper).
     Pittsburgh, PA:  Pittsburgh Dispatch Publishing Company.  [Contains articles and mentions of the iron works at various dates, refer to the references for each iron works.]
Pittsburgh Gazette (Newspaper)
v.d.  Pittsburgh Gazette. (Newspaper).
     Pittsburgh, PA:  Pittsburgh Gazette Publishing Company.  [Contains articles and mentions of the iron works at various dates, refer to the references for each iron works.]
1788 Pittsburgh Gazette (Newspaper), Pittsburgh, PA, April 12,1788; Nov. 22, 1788.
      Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh Gazette Publishing Company.    [Accounts of the establishment of the partnership of William Turnbull, Peter Marmie, & Robert Holker in Alliance Furnace.]
1793a Pittsburgh Gazette (Newspaper), Pittsburgh, PA, Aug. 31, 1793.
      [Notice of the partnership of Turnbull & Marmie having dissolved, claims against them, to be rendered to Peter Marmie at Alliance Iron Works...]
1793b Pittsburgh Gazette (Newspaper), Pittsburgh, PA, Nov. 2, 1793.
      [Account of the failure of Alliance Iron Works...]
1797 Pittsburgh Gazette (Newspaper), Pittsburgh, PA, July 29, 1797.
      [Ad.  10 Dollars Reward - Strayed from Jacob's Creek three miles above Turnbull's Iron Works... A Mare... signed Peter Smail, Jun.]
1807  Pittsburgh Gazette (Newspaper), Pittsburgh, PA, Mar.27, 1807.
      [Ad.  Alliance Iron Works & Lands offered for Sale by Samuel Hughes.]
Pittsburgh Mercury (Newspaper)
v.d.  Pittsburgh Mercury. (Newspaper).
     Pittsburgh, PA:  Pittsburgh Mercury Publishing Company.  [Contains articles and mentions of the iron works at various dates, refer to the references for each iron works.]
Pittsburgh Morning Chronicle (Newspaper)
v.d.  Pittsburgh Morning Chronicle. (Newspaper).
Pittsburgh, PA:  Pittsburgh Morning Chronicle Publishing Company.  [Contains articles and mentions of the iron works at various dates, refer to the references for each iron works.]
Platt, Franklin
1876  Special Report of the Coke Manufacture of the Youghiogheny River Valley in Fayette and Westmoreland Counties.  With Geological Notes of the Coal and Iron Ore Beds.  Report of Progress L.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners Second Geological Survey.
1881  The Geology of Blair County. Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania.  Report of Progress T.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Second Geological Survey.  [Contains information on Allegheny Furnace, Baker Furnace, Bennington Furnace, Blair Iron & Coal Company No. 1 Furnace, Bloomfield Furnace, Cove Forge, AEtna Furnace, Franklin Forge, Frankstown Furnace, Hollidaysburg No. 1 Furnace, Hollidaysburg No. 2 Furnace, Hollidaysburg & McKee' Gap Iron Company, Martha (McKee's Gap) Furnace, Rebecca Furnace, Rodman No. 1 Furnace, Rodman No. 2 Furnace, Sarah Furnace, Springfield Furnace, Tyrone Forge, Williamsburg Furnace, and Woodberry Furnace.]
Platt, Franklin and W. G. Platt
1877  Report of Progress in the Cambria and Somerset District of the Bituminous Coal-Fields of Western Pennsylvania.  Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania: 1875. Part I. Cambria, Report HH.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners Second Geological Survey.
1877  Report of Progress in the Cambria and Somerset District of the Bituminous Coal Fields of Western Pennsylvania.  Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania: 1876.  Part II. Somerset, Report HHH.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners Second Geological Survey.
Platt, J. C.
1886  Reminiscences of the Early History of "Dark Hollow,": Slocum Hollow," "Harrison," "Lackawanna Iron Works," "Scrantonia," and "Scranton, Pa."
     Paper read before the Lackawanna Institution of History and Science, Nov. 9, 1886.
 [Reference Source:  Pennsylvania Collections, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.]
Platt, W. G.
1878  Report of Progress in Indiana County, Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania: 1877. Report HHHH.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners Second Geological Survey.  [Contains information on Baker Furnace, Black Lick Furnace, Buena Vista Furnace, Conemaugh Furnace, and Ritter Furnace.]
1880  Report of Progress in Armstrong County, Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania: 1789. Report H5.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners Second Geological Survey.  [Contains information on the various Iron Furnaces in Armstrong County.  Allegheny Furnace, American Furnace, Bear Creek Furnace, Boner Furnace, Bonner Furnace, Buffalo Furnaces, Brady's Bend Furnaces, Brady's Bend Rolling Mill, Cowanshannock Furnace, Donelly Furnace, Kittanning Furnaces, Kittanning Rolling Mill, Leechburg Rolling Mill, Great Western Furnaces, Mahoning Furnace, McCrea's Furnace, Monticello Furnace, Olney Furnace, Ore Hill Furnace, Phoenix Furnace, Pine Creek Furnace, Red Bank Furnace, Rock Furnace, Rough Furnace, Stewardson Furnace and Valley Rolling Mill.]
Pomeroy, A.
1873  Atlas of Blair and Huntingdon Counties, Pennsylvania.
    Philadelphia, PA: A. Pomeroy and Company.
Poor, Ruth V.
1994  The Old Thropp Mansion.
    Published in: "The Pioneer."  V.20, April, 1994.  Bedford, PA:  The Pioneer Historical Society of Bedford County.
Potts Family Papers
n.d.  Potts Family Papers.
     MSS Group MG-104, Potts Family Papers. Pennsylvania State Archives.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania State Archives, William Penn Memorial Museum.  [Papers of a iron manufacturing family prominent in Pennsylvania's early iron industry, containing correspondence, business papers & legal records relating to Charming Forge, Hopewell Forge, Mount Joy Forge, Colobrook Furnace, Elizabeth Furnace, Etna Furnace, Oley Furnace, Reading Furnace, Warrick Furnace, etc.]
Pred, Allen R.
1973  Urban Growth and the Circulation of Information:  The United States System of Cities, 1790-1840.
     Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press.
Prime, Frederick, Jr.
1975  Report of Progress on the Brown Hematite Ore Ranges of Lehigh County,
     with a description of the mines lying between Emaus, Aburtis, and Fogelsville.  Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 2nd. Series, D., 73p.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geological Survey. 
1878  The Brown Hematite Deposits of the Siluro-Cambrian Limestones of Lehigh County.  
   Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 2nd Series, DD, 99p.  Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geologial Survey.
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Quin, Richard H.
1993  Indiana County, Pennsylvania.  An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites.  
   Historic American Building Survey / Historic American Engineering Record. HABS/HAER,  America's Industrial Heritage Project.  Washington, D.C.:  National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior.
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Rainey, Lee and Frank Kyper
1982  East Broad Top.  
   San Marino, CA:  Golden West Books.
Raymond, R.W.
1897  The American Iron Mastrer's Work.
     Published in "Atlantic Monthly," vol. XL.  n.p.: Atlantic Monthly.
Redlich, Fritz
1940  History of American Business Leaders: A Series of Studies. 2 Vols.
     Ann Arbor, MI:  Edwards Brothers.
Reed, George Irving, ed.
1904  Century Cyclopedia of History and Biography of Pennsylvania.  Vol I.
     Chicago, IL:  The Century Publishing and Engraving Company.   [(Reed,1904:100-101).  Alliance Furnace & Alliance Forge, Jacob's Creel, Fayette County, put in-blast Nov. 1, 1790, built by William Turnbull, Peter Marmie & Col. John Holker, in-blast till 1802.]
Reeve, Mary Wigton
1933  Iron Furnace Baronies of Huntingdon County.
    Clearfield, PA:  n.p.
Reiser, Catherine Elizabeth
1951  Pittsburgh's Commercial Development 1800-1850.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Republican & Democrat (Newspaper)
v.d.   Republican & Democrat. (Newspaper).
   [Various dates, furnace ads.]   Greensburg, PA: Republican & Democrat Publishing Company.
Rice, William
1951  Mount Hope Furnace, An Early Landmark.
     Published in "American German Review," Vol.17, No. 5, pp.28-29.  n.p.:  n.p.
Richardson, G.B.
1935   Description of the Somerset and Windber Quadrangles, Pennsylvania.
   U.S.Geological Survey, Geological Atlas Folio 224, 14pp.,   Washington D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey
Rieseman, Joseph
1943  History of Northwestern Pennsylvania.  
   n.p.:n.p.
Rinard, Marian
1970  Black Valley:  A Thriving Farming Area Where Industry Once Prospered.
   Published in "Bedford County Press," September 10, 1970, 2nd. Section:1.  Bedford, PA:  Bedford County Press Publishing Co.
Roberts, Charles Rhoads, et al.
1914  The History of the Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania.  
   3 vols.,  Allentown, PA: Lehigh Valley Publishing
Roberts, Ed.
1885   The Late David Thomas, Catasauqua, Pa.  
    The Father of the Anthracite Iron Trade.  published in "The Cambrian," vol. 4 (April 1885):104-8; vol.5 (May 1885): 133-5.  n.p.: n.p.
Robertson, John H.
1945  Duncansville.
    Published in "Blair County's First Hundred Years," pp.45-49. George A. Wolf, ed.  Hollidaysburg, PA: Blair County Historical Society.
Robson, Charles, ed.
1875   The Manufacturies and Manufacturers of Pennsylvania of the Nineteenth Century.  
   Philadelphia, PA: Galaxy Publishing Company.
Rodger, David
1965  Shade Furnace in Operation in 1809.
    Published in "Laurel Messenger,"  May, 1965, page 8.  Publication of the Somerset Historical Society. Somerset, PA: Somerset County Historical Society. 
Rogers, Henry Darwin
1858  Geology of Pennsylvania, A Government Survey, in two Volumes.  
    Philadelphia, PA:  J.B.Lippincott & Co. [(Rogers,1858,2:608)  Describes iron ore used at Turnbull's Furnace & Forge, Jacob's Creek. States that the furnace stack was in excellent condition in 1857.]
Ross Furnace Ledgers MSS
n.d.  Ross Furnace Ledgers.
    in the Collections of the Westmoreland County Historical Society.  Greensburg, PA:  Westmoreland County Historical Society.
Rowe, A. L.
1902  Among the Hills of Jacob's Creek.  
   published in "The Watchword," August 19,1902. n.p.: n.p.  [A story about Alliance Furnace.]
Runk, J. M. & Co.
1897  Commemorative Biographical Encyclopedia of the Juniata Valley.  2 Vols.
    Chambersburg, PA: J.M.Runk & Company.
Ruoff, Henry Wilson, ed.
1895  Biographical and Portrait Cyclopidia of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.  Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the County, Together with an Introduction Historical Sketch.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Biographical Publishing Company.
Rupp, Israel Daniel
1844  History of the Counties of Berks and Lebanon.
     Lancaster, PA:  G. Hill. Printer.
1846  Early History of Western Pennsylvania and of the West.
     n.p.:  n.p.
1846  The History and Topography of Dauphin, Cumberland, Franklinm Bedford, Adams and Perry Counties: Containing a Brief History of the First Settlers, Notices of the Leading Events, incidents and Interesting Facts, Both General and Local, in the History of these Counties, General & Statictical Descriptions of All the Principal Boroughs, Towns, Villages, &c. with an Appendix.
     Lancaster City, PA:  Gilbert Hills, Proprietor & Publisher.
1847  History and Topography of Northumberland, Huntingdon, Mifflin, Centre, Union, Columbia, Juniata, and Clinton Counties, Pennsylvania.
     Lancaster, PA:  Gilbert Hills, Proprietor & Publisher.
1984  History of the Counties of Berks and Lebanon.
     Reprint ed. of the 1844 ed. with a new index.  Laughlintown, PA:  Pennsylvania Reprint Society, Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services.  [Contains interesting histories of the iron furnaces located in Berks and Lebanon Counties.]
Rutledge, J.J.
1908 The Clinton Iron-ore Deposits in Stone Valley, Huntingdon County, PA.
   published in "American Institute Mining Metall. Engineers Bulletin," V.24, p.1057-87; Transactions V.40, p.134-64, 1910. n.p.:  American Institute of Mining Engineers.
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Sanborn Map Company
1884  Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
1885  Everett, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1891a  Everett, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1891b  Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1894  Rockhill Furnace, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
1896  Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1897  Dunbar, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
1900  Everett, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1901  Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1903  Dunbar, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
1904  Rockhill Furnace, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
1905  Everett, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1908  Dunbar, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
1910  Everett, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1911  Rockhill Furnace, Pennsylvania.  N.Y: NY, Sanborn Map Company.
1924  Everett, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY:  Sanborn Map Company.
1925  Dunbar, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
1927  Bolivar, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
1930  Indiana, Pennsylvania.  N.Y., NY: Sanborn Map Company.
    [Detailed maps intended for insurance company use; includes information on details of building material, dimensions, etc.   Maps are available in the Library of Congress, Map and Geography Reading Room, Washington, D.C.  Various county maps are available at the various county historical society.] 
Savage, Wilbert Nathan
1977 Early Blast Furnaces.
   published in "Game News," Mar.1977, pp7-12.  Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Game Commission.
Sayenga, Donald
1989 Canals, Convertors, & Cheap Steel.
    published in "Canal History & Technology Proceedings," Vol. VIII, March 18, 1989. Easton,PA: The Center for Canal History and Technology.
Schallenberg, Richard H.
1975  Evolution, Adaptation and Survival:  The Very Slow Death of the American Charcoal Iron Industry.
    Published in "Annals of Science," Vol. 32, 1975:341-58.  n.p.:  n.p.
Schallenberg, Richard H. & David A. Ault
1977  Raw Materials Supply and Technological Changes in the American Charcoal Iron Industry.
    Published in "Technology and Culture," Vol. 18 (July,1977):436-466.  n.p.:  n.p.
Schell, William P.
1907 The Annals of Bedford County, Pennsylvania.  
    Bedford, PA:  Gazette Publishing Company.
Schultz, George W.
1944 Colebrookdale - "Mother" of Pennsylvania Iron Industry.
    published in "Berks County Historical Review," Vol.10, 1949, pp13-15.  n.d.: n.p.
Schwager, Michael D. and Jean Barth Toll, eds.
1983 Montgomery County: The Second Hundred Years.
    published in "Montgomery County,"  Vol., 1 (1983):528-549. n.p.: Federation of Historical Societies.
Scottdale Centennial Association, Inc.
1974  Scottdale's Centennial Anniversary: Scottdale 100 Years.
    Scottdale, PA:  Scottdale Centennial Association, Inc.
Sec. Treasury
    See: U.S. Secretary of Treasury.
Sec. Int. Aff.
Secretary of Internal Affairs, Pennsylvania
   See: Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Secretary of Internal Affairs.
Sell, Jesse C.
1911 Twentieth Century History of Altoona and Blair County Pennsylvania and Representatives Citizens.
    Chicago, IL:  Richmond Arnold Publishing Co.
[Reference Source: Carnigie Library, Pennsylvania Division, Pittsburgh, PA]
Shappee, Nathan D.
1940  A History of Johnstown and the Great Flood of 1889:  A Study of Disaster and Rehabilitation.
    Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1940.  Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.
Sharp, Myron B.
1972  The California Furnace and the Iron Industry.
   Published in "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine," Vol. 55, No. 2, 1972:180-185. Pittsburgh, PA:      Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Sharp, Myron B. and William H. Thomas
1966 Guide to the Old Stone Blast Furnaces in Western Pennsylvania.
    Pittsburgh, PA:  The Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
    [Excellent guide to most of the stone blast furnaces in Western Pennsylvania, although there are many furnaces not covered in this guide, and most of the PA LR. Rt. numbers have been changed to S.R. Rt. numbers.]
Sharpsville Herald (Newspaper)
n.d.  Old Sharpsville Furnace.  
   Newspaper Article in the collections of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society, Pennsylvania.
Shaw, Mary Jane
1978  Iron Furnaces in Fayette and Westmoreland Counties.  
     published in "Westmoreland-Fayette Historical Society Newsletter," Vol. 1, No. 7, April,1978, n.p.  West Overton, PA:  Westmoreland-Fayette Historical Society.  [Compilation of data on the Iron Furnaces of Fayette & Westmoreland Cos., and documents in the collections of the Wesymoreland-Fayette Historical Society.]
Shedd, Nancy S.
1991  Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania.  An Inventory of Historic Engineering and Industrial Sites.        Historic American Building Survey / Historic American Engineering Record.  HABS/HAER.  America's Industrial Heritage Project.  Washington, D.C.:  National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
Shedd, Nancy S. & Jean P. Harshbarger
1980 Huntingdon County Historic Sites Survey:  Data Analysis and Final Report. March, 1980.
    Huntingdon, PA:  Huntingdon County Historical Society.  [Unpublished Report, available at the Huntingdon County Historical Society.]
1987  Second Century, 1887-1987: A Huntingdon County Bicentennial Album.
     Huntingdon, PA:  Huntingdon County Historical Society.
Shenk, Dr. Hiram H.
1930 A History of the Lebanon Valley in Pennsylvania. Vol. 1.
     Harrisburg, PA:  The National Historical Association, Inc.
[Ref. Source:  Pennsylvania Room, Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, PA.]
Shoenberger, Peter
1853  Cambria Iron Company of Johnstown, Pa.  
    New York, NY:  George F. Nesbitt and Co., Printers.
Shubert, H.R.
1957  History of the British Iron and Steel Industry.  
    London, Engoland: n.p.
Silliman, Benjamin
1872 On the Fossil Iron Ores and Its Associates in Southern Pennsylvania.
     Published in "Iron & Steel Institute Journal,", Vol. 2, 1872: 334-341.  London, UK:  Iron & Steel Institue Journal  
Singewald, Joseph T., Jr.
1911 Report on the Iron Ores of Maryland.  
    with an Account of the Iron Industry.  Maryland Geological and Economic Survey (Special Pub. 9,3.)  Baltimore, MD:  John Hopkins Press.
Sisson, William, ed.
1991 BHP Documents Iron and Steel Industry.
    Published in "Penndustry,"  Vol. 3, No.1, Summer 1991, Newsletter of the Industrial Survey of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
Skaggs, Julian
1989  Charles Huston, 1822-1897.  
    published in "Iron and Steel in the Nineteenth Century," pp.185-88.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY: Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc.; Facts on File, Inc.
Smith, Alan McKinley
1960  The Development of the American Coke Industry to 1875,with Emphasis on the Connellsville Field.
    M.A. Thesis, University of Pittsburgh.  Pittsburgh, PA:  University of Pittsburgh.
Smith, Clarles E.
1851  The Manufacture of Iron in Pennsylvania.  
    published in "Hunt's Merchants' Magazine," vol. 25 (November, 1851:574-581, 656.  n.p.: Hunt's Merchants' Magazine.
Smith, Elmer L. & Mel Horst
1971  Early Iron Ware.  
    Lebanon, PA:  Applied Arts Publishers.
Smith, James O. & Merle G. Hawn
1978  The Valley and the Fort.  
    McAlevy's Fort, PA:  Stone Valley Civic Group. [Contains historical references to Greenwood Furnace, Huntingdon Co.]
Smith, L. L.
1931  Magnetite Deposits of French Creek, PA.  
    Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th Series, Bulletin M14.  Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Smith, Merritt Roe
1977  Harper's Ferry Armory and the New Technology.
    Ithaca, NY and London, UK:  Cornell University Press.
Smith, Nancy L.
1992 Iron Production Between the River and the Front:  A revision of the Plantation Model in an Era of Proto-Industrialization.
   Unpublished Master's Thesis in Geography, Pennsylvania State University, May 1992.  University Park, PA: n.p.
Smith, Robert B.
1945  Hollidaysburg.
    Published in "Blair County's First Hundred Years," pp.54-58. George A. Wolf, ed.  Hollidaysburg, PA: Blair County Historical Society.
Smith, Robert W.
1883  History of Armstrong County.
    n.p.: n.p.
Snowberger, Ella M.
1945  Martinsburg.
    Published in "Blair County's First Hundred Years," pp.58-64. George A. Wolf, ed.  Hollidaysburg, PA: Blair County Historical Society.
Society for Industrial Archaeology
1984  Iron & Steel.  Data Sheet No. 4, October, 1984.  
    Washington, D.C.:  Society for Industrial Archaeology.
Sons of the American Revolution
1932   Fort Necessity & Historic Shrines of the Redstone County.
    n.p.: n.p.  [(S.A.R.,1932:109-111).  Contains a short history of Alliance Furnace.]
Spencer, Arthur C.
1907  Megnetite Deposits of the Cornwall Type inBerks and Lebanon Counties, PA.
     U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 35, p.185-189.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey.
1908  Magnetite Deposits of the Cornwall Type in Pennsylvania.
     Departement of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 359.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey, Government Printing Office.
1910  The Jauss Iron Mine, Dillsburg, Pa.
     U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 430, p.247-49.  Washington D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey.
Stephenson, Clarence D.
1968  Buena Vista Furnace.
     Marion Center, PA:  Privately published.
1978  Indiana County,  175th Anniversary History.  Vol.1.
     Indiana, PA:  A.G.Halldin Publishing Company.
1979  The Pennsylvania Canal:  Indiana and Westmoreland Counties.
     Indiana, PA:  A.G. Halldin Publishing Company.
Sternagle, Alton M.
1986a  Iron Furnaces of Blair and Huntingdon Counties.
     Published in: 51st Annual Field Conference of Pennsylvania Geologists: Selected Geology of Bedford and Huntingdon Counties. papers, Pennsylvania Geological Survey and Juniata College: n.p., n.p.
1986b  Peter Shoenberger, Ironmaster of the Juniata.
    Published in: 51st Annual Field Conbference of Pennsylvania Geologists: Selected Geology of Bedford and Huntingdon Counties. papers, pp.51-54. Pennsylvania Geological Survey and Juniata College: n.p., n.p.
Stevens, Sylvester K.
1948  Pennsylvania: Titan of Industry. Vol. 1
     New York, NY:  Lewis Historical Publishing Company.
n.d.  The Centre Furnace Story, A Return to Our Roots.
     n.p.: n.p.
1985  The Centre Furnace Story, A Return to Our Roots.
     Edited and Expanded by Philip S. Klein.  State College, PA:  n.p.
Stevenson, J.J.
1877 Report of Proghress in the Fayette & Westmoreland District of the Bituminous Coal-Fields of Western Pensylvania. Part I.  Eastern Allegheny County and Fayette and Westmoreland Counties west from Chestnut Ridge.  Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania: 1876.  Report KK
     Harrisburg, PA: Board of Commissioners Second Geological Survey.
1878  Report of Progress in the Fayette & Westmoreland District of the Bituminous Coal-Fields of Western Pennsylvania. Part II. The Ligonier Valley.  Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 1877.  Report KKK.
    Harrisburg, PA:  Board of Commissioners Second Geological Survey.
Stewart, Andrew
1872 The American System.  Speeches on the Tariff Question, and on Internal Improvements, principally Delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States, by Andrew Stewart, late M.C. from Pennsylvania.
     Philadelphia, PA:  Henry Carey Baird, Industrial Publisher   [Reference Source:  Collections of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society, Pittsburgh, PA.]
Stewart, D.S.
1873 Description of a Large Private Estate.  Embracing 35,000 Acres of Mineral, Timberand Agricultural Lands:  Mills, Hotels and Water Powers, A Blast Furnace & A Village offered for Sale in Southwestern Pennsylvania.
    Washington, D.C.:  Powell & Ginck, Printer.  [Reference Source:  Pennsylvania Collection, Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, PA.]
Stewart, J.T.
1913  History of Indiana County.
     n.p.:  n.p.
Stoek, H.H.
1892  Notes on the Iron Ores of Danville, PA.
     Published in "American Institute Mining Metall. Engineering Trans.", Vol. 20, pp.369-85.   New York, NY:  American Institute of Miniing Engineers.
Stone, R.W.
1939  Geology and Mineral Resources of Greene County, PA. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Bulletin C-2, pp183-86.
     Harrisburg, PA:  Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Stose, A. J. and G.W. Stose
1944  Geology of the Hanover-York District, PA.  United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 204, 84p.
     Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey
Stose, G.W.
1909  Description of the Mercersburg-Chambersburg Quadrangle, Pennsylvania.  United States Geological Survey, Atlas folio 170.  20p.
     Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Geological Survey
1932  Geology and Mineral Resources of Adams County, Pa. Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th Series, Bulletin C-1, 153p.
     Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Stose, G.W. and A.I. Jonas
1933 Geology and Mineral Resources of the Middletown quadrangle, PA.  
     U.S. Geological Survey, Bull. 840, 86p. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey.
1939  Geology and Mineral Resources of York County, PA.
     Pa. Geological Survey, 4th Series, Bull 20, 351p. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Geological Survey.
Stotz, Charles
1936  The Architectural Heritage of Early Western Pennsylvania.
      Pittsburgh, PA:  University of Pittsburgh Press.
Sullivan, William A.
1955 The Industrial Worker in Pennsylvania, 1800-1840.
    Harrisburg, PA: n.p.
Swank, George T.
1969 Geo. T. Swank's General and Business Directory of Johnstown.  
    Johnstown, PA: Geo. T. Swank Book and Job Printer.
Swank, James M.
n.d.     History of Iron-Making and Coal-Mining in Western Pennsylvania.  
   Philadelphia, PA: n.p.
1876  The Iron Works of the United States: Directory of Furnaces, Rolling Mills, Steel Works, Forges and Bloomeries in Every State.  
    New York, NY:  n.p.
1878  Introduction to a History of Iron-Making and Coal-Mining in Pennsylvania.  
    Contributed to the Final Report of the Pennsylvania Board of Centennial Managers.
   Philadelphia, PA: published by the author.
1883  The Iron and Steel Industries of Pennsylvania.  
   published in "Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Part III, Industrial Statistics," Vol.X, 1881-82.  Harrisburg, PA:  Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
1892   History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages,
   and Particularly in the United States from Colonial Times to 1891. Also a Short History of Early Coal Mining in the United States, and a Full Account of the Influences which long delayed the development of all american manufactureing industries.  Philadelphia, PA: The American Iron & Steel Association.
   [One of the best broad histories of the Iron and Steel Industry in America.  Although much of the data is taken from Swank's earlier works.]
1900 Early Iron Enterprises in Cambira, Somerset, Westmoreland and Indiana Counties.  
   prepared by James M. Swank for the Centennial Celebration of the Founding of Johnstown.
   Philadelphia, PA: n.p.
[Contains the same basic data on western Pennsylvania found in Swank's Introduction to a History of Iron-Making.]
[Reference source:  Collections of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society, Pitsburgh, PA.]
Swetnam, George
1960 Steel's Forgotten Shrine.  
   published in "The Pittsburgh Press," June 4, 1960. Pittsburgh, PA: The Pittsburgh Press.
1979 Labor-Management Relations in Pennsylvania's Steel Industry 1800-1959.
     Published in "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine," Vol. 62, 1979: pp321-332.  Pittsburgh, PA:  Western Pennsylvania Historical Society. 
Swetnam, George and Helene Smith
1976  A Guidebook to Historic Western Pennsylvania.
     Pittsburgh, PA:  University of Pittsburgh Press.
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T. & R. Bureau, Fayette Co.
1976  Old Iron Furnaces of Fayette County.
    T. & R. Bureau,1976: n.p.  [Contains the location & short complilation of data on Alliance Furnace and the other furnaces in Fayette County.]
Taussig, F.W.
1931 The Tariff History of the United States, 8th ed.
    New York and London:  n.p.
Temin, Peter
1964  Iron and Steel in nineteenth-Century America:  An Economic Industry.  
  Cambridge, MA:  The M.I.T. Press.
Tench, Coxe
1814  A Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United States of America for the year 1810.
   Philadelphia, PA:  n.p.
The Derrick (Newspaper)
1993 Looking for Venango County's Iron Furnaces.
   by Paul Frederick.  Published in "The Derrick," Wednesday, Jan. 20,1993.  Oil City, PA:  The Derrick, Publishing Company.
The Perry Review (Newspaper)
1977  Caroline Furnace.  
   Published in "The Perry Review," No. 2, April, 1977. Publication of the Perry Historians, P.O. Box 73, Newport, PA 17074
Thomas, Samuel
1899 Reminiscences of the Early Anthracite Iro Industry.
   Published "Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers," Vol.29, 1899:901-928.  n.p.:  American Institute of Mining Engineers.
Thompson, D.W., ed.
1951  Two Hundred Years in Cumberland County.  
   Carlisle, PA:  Hamilton Library & Historical Association of Cumberland Co.
[Reference source:  Pennsylvania Collection, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, Pittsburg, PA.]
Thompson, George
n.d. Correspondence of George Thompson.  associated with Mary Ann Furnace, Huntingdon County
   and agent for executors of John Savage.  Papers relating to the manuf. & price of iron, paymant of debts, protests of notes for nonpayment.  MSS Group MG-138, George Thompson Papers, 1833-38. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania State Archives.
Thompson, James G.
1932  A History of the Early Charcoal Iron Furnaces in Juniata Valley.
    B.S. Thesis, Pennsylvania State College, State College, PA  on file in the Library, Main Campus, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA
Thurston, Geo. H.
1859 Directory of the Monongahela and Youghiogheny Valleys:  
   Containing Brief Historical Sketches of the Various Towns located on Them.  Pittsburgh, PA:  A.A. Anderson
Tittsler, L.M.
1935 Charcoal Blast Furnaces in Mercer County.  
   Sharon, PA: Sharon Herald, 1935
   [Reference Source:  Photostats in Western Pennsylvania Historical Society archives, Pittsburgh, PA.]
Tomlinson, Charles, ed.
1854  Cyclopedia of Useful Arts & Manufactures.  
   2 vols.  London, England & New York, NY:  G. Virtue & Company
Trego, C.R.
1873 Observations of the Iron Ore Deposits of Buckingham Mountain, Bucks County, Pa.  
   published in "American Philosophical Society Proceeding," v.13, p.264. Philadelphia, PA:  American Philosophical Society
Troop, Benjamin H.
1895  A Half Century in Scranton.
   Scranton, PA:  The Scranton Republican
Tulphocken Settlement Historical Society
1991   Ledger of Charming Forge.  
    Published in the Annual Publication, 1991, No. XXIII, of the Tulpehocken Settlement Historical Society.
    Wolmelsdorf, PA:  Tulpehocken Settlement Historical Society.
Turnbull, Archibald Douglas
1933   William Turnbull, 1751-1822, with some accounts of those coming after.
    New York, NY:  Privately Printed.  [The Life of William Turnbull, one of the builders of Alliance Furnace.]
Tyler, John D.
1967  The Charcoal Industry in Decline;  1855-1925.
   Master Thesis in History, University of Delaware.   
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U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census of Manuf.
U.S. Cnesus of Manufactures
    See: United States Census Bureau
           United States Census of Manufactures
U.S. Census of Population
    See: United States Census Bureau
            United States Census of Population
U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
    See: United States Secretary of the Treasury
United States Census Bureau
United States Census of Manufactures
1820  Schedules for Pennsylvania, Census of Manufactures.
   National Archives Microfilm Publications, Microcopy No. 279.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Census Bureau, National Archives.
1850  Schedules for Pennsylvania, Census of Industry.
  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Census Bureau, National Archives.
1860  Schedules for Pennsylvania, Census of Industry.
   Pennsylvania Census Records, 1860.  Bell & Howell Micro copy Roll No. MFM108, Roll 1.  Washington, D.C.:  U.S. Census Bureau, National Archives.
United States Census Bureau
United States Census of Population
1850 Population Schedules of the Seventh Census of the United States, 1850.  
   National Archives Microfilm Publication.  Micro copy No. 432, Roll 779-PA-Fayette Co.  Washington, D.C.:  National Archives, U.S. Census Bureau.
United States Department of the Interior, Division of Publications, National Park Service
1983 Hopewell Furnace, A Guide to Hopewell National Historic Site, Pennsylvania.
    Washington, D.C.:  Government Printing Office.
United States Secretary of the Treasury [Doc. Relative to Manuf. U.S.]
     [Referenced as:  Doc. Relative to Manuf. U.S. (Sec. Treas.:)]
1833  Documents Relative to the Manufacture in the United States, Collected and Tranmitted to the House of Representatives.  
   In Compliance with a resolution of Jan. 19,1832.,  by the Secretary of the Treasury, in two Volumes.  Volume II.  Executive Documents, 1st Sess., 2nd Congress.  Washington: printed by Duff Green.
[Reference source:   Parks Library, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011.]
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Van Atta, Robert B.
1972 Old Iron Furnaces, Remains of a Bugone Era.  
    published in "Scene Magazine," Nov.-Dec., 1972, p.30-35.  Scottdale,PA:  Laurel Highlands Publishing Co.
    [Alliance Furnace, Jacobs Creek, NE Perryopolis, Fayette Co., built 1789, operated until 1802, much of the ruins of the furnace remain.]
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Walker, Joseph E.
1964  Hopewell Village:  Some Aspects of the Social and Economic History of an Iron-making Community,
   with Special Emphasas upon the Period 1800-1850.  n.p.: Temple University Dissertion.
1966 Hopewell Village:  A Social and Economic History of an Ironmaking Community.  
   Phiadelphia, PA:  University of Pennsylvania Press, 526pp.
[A most complete history of Hopewell Furnace, based upon extensive research in surviving records.]
1969  Negro Labor in the Charcoal Iron Industry of South-Eastern Pennsylvania.  
   published in "Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography," (XCII), Oct. 1969, p.466-86. Philadelphia, PA: n.p.
1974 The End of Colonialism in the Middle Atlantic Iron Industry.
   Published in "Pennsylvania History," Vol. 41,1974:5-26:  n.p.:  n.p.
1975  Pleasure and Business in Western Pennsylvania.  
   n.p.: n.p.
Wallace, P.B.
1930  Colonial Ironwork in Old Philadelphia.  
   New York, NY: n.p.
Walling, Henry F.
1872  Historical and Topographical Atlas of the State of Pennsylvania.
   Philadelphia, PA:  Stedman, Brown and Lyon.
Wallner, Peter A.
1973  Politics and Public Works: A Study of the Pennsylvania Canal System, 1825-1857.
    A Thesis in History.  State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University.
Warner, Beers & Company
1886  History of Cumberland and Adams Counties, Pennsylvania.  
  Containing history of the counties, their Townships, Towns, Villages, Schools, Churches, Industries, etc.  Chicago, IL: Warner, Beers & Company
Warren, Kenneth
1973 The American Steel Industry, 1850-1970:  A Geographical Interpretation.  
   Oxford, MA:  Clarendon Press.
Washington Reporter (Newspaper)
v.d.  Washington Reporter (Newspaper).  
   Various dates.  Washington, PA:  Washington Reporter Publishing Co.
Washlaski, Raymond A.
1979  Field Trip Report to Ramsey Furnace, Dec. 29,1979.  
   Manuscript report on file with the Pennsylvania Archaeological Site Survey, William Penn Museum.  Harrisburg, PA.  New Alexandria, PA:  Author.
n.d.  Archaeological Site Survey Reports on the Iron Furnace Sites in Western Pennsylvania.  
   Archaeological Site reporting forms filed with the Pennsylvania Archaeological Site Survey, William Penn Museum, Harrisburg, PA. New Alexandria, PA:  Author.
n.d.  Collection of Research Material on the Iron Furnaces of Pennsylvania.  
   New Alexandria, PA: Author.
n.d.  History of Wharton Furnace (36 FA 23)  ca.1835-1890, Fayette County, Pennsylvania.  
   unpublished manuscript in the collectrions of the author.  New Alexandria, PA:  Author.
Waterman, Watkins & Company
1884  History of Bedford, Somerset and Fulton Counties, Pennsylvania.
    Chicago, IL:  Waterman, Watkins & Company.
Webb, W.S.
1884  Webb's Johnstown Directory, 1884.  
   New York, NY:  W.S. Webb & Company.
Weber, Denise Dusza
1991  Delano's Domain:  History of Warren Delano's Mining Towns of Vintondale, Wehrum & Claghorn.  
   Indiana, PA:  A.G.Haildin Publishing Co., Inc.
Weig, Melvin J.
1939  Hopewell Village and the Colonial Iron Industry.  
   published in "The Regional Review," V.2, No. 4, 1939: 3-9.  n.p.: n.p.
Weingartner, W.
1832  Old Economy, Map of Beaver County, Map of Beaver Falls.  
   n.p.:  n.p.
Weitzman, David
1980 Traces of the Past: A Field Guide to Industrial Archaeology
    New York, NY:  Charles Scribner's Sons.
Western Pennsylvania Historical Society
n.d.  Medora Collections, Youghiogheny Iron & Coal Company papers.  
   in MSS Collections of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.  Pittsburgh, PA:  Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
1810  Holker Papers. Col. John Holker's MSS &
   various collections of material relating to the early iron industry in western Pennsylvania.  Pittsburgh, PA:  Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
n.d. Spang, Chalfont, and Company Papers.
   in MSS Collections of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.  Pittsburgh, PA: Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
1936  Two Centuries of Industry.  
   The Rise of Manufactures in Western Pennsylvania. MSS by Arthur Pound.   MSS in the collections of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.  Pittsburgh, PA: Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Western Telegraphe (Newspaper)
v.d.  Western Telegraphe (Newspaper).  
   Various dates.  Uniontown, PA: Western Telegraphe Publishing Co.
Westmoreland County Courthouse
1797a Westmoreland County Deed Books.  Westmoreland County Deed Book 3, Page 77.
    [Deed for Alliance Furnaces Lands.]
1799  Westmoreland County Deed Books.  Westmoreland County Deed Book 4, Page 381-386.
    [Deed for Alliance Furnace & Lands from John Holker to Robert Smith, Mark Pringle, Hugh Moore & Samuel Hughes.]
1815  Westmoreland County Deed Books.  Westmoreland County Deed Book 15, Page 113-119.
    [Deed for Alliance Furnaces Lands.]
1935  Westmoreland County Deed Books.  Westmoreland County Deed Book 962, Page 215.
     [Jacobs Creek Oil Company lease of Alliance Furnaces Lands to Peoples Natural Gas Company.
1798   Westmoreland County Tax Records.  Tax List South Huntingdon Twp., Westmoreland County.
     [#107  John Holker, Owner & Occupant, Tax on Alliance Forge & Dwellings, Barns, & Smith Shop.]
Westmoreland County Historical Society
n.d.  Collection of Documents relating to the Iron Works of Westmoreland County.  
   Ross Furnace Ledgers & other related material.  Greensburg, PA:  Westmoreland Historical Society.
Westmoreland-Fayette Historical Society
n.d.  Collection of Documents Relating to the Iron Works of Fayette County.  
  Various photos of the Iron Furnaces in Fayette.  West Overton, PA:  Westmoreland-Fayette Historical Society
Westmoreland Republican & Farmers Chronicle (Newspaper)
v.d.  Westmoreland Republican & Farmers Chronicle (Weekly Newspaper).  
     Greensburg, PA:  Westmoreland Republican & Farmers Chronicle Publishing Co.
Whelan, Frank
1989  Pennsylvania Iron Works.
      Published in "Iron and Steel in the nineteenth Century," pp.273-275.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. and Facts on File, Inc.
1989  Phoenix Iron Works.
      Published in "Iron and Steel in the nineteenth Century," pp.277-278.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. and Facts on File, Inc.
1989  Reeves, Abbott & Company.
      Published in "Iron and Steel in the nineteenth Century," pp.293-294.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. and Facts on File, Inc.
1989  Pottstown Iron Company.
      Published in "Iron and Steel in the nineteenth Century," pp.284-285.  Encyclopedia of American Business History and Biography, Paul F. Paskoff, ed.  New York, NY:  Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc. and Facts on File, Inc.
White, Edward (Kirke)
1879  History of Venango County.  
   n.p.:  published by J. A. Caldwell.
White, Harold E.
1961 Iron From the Forest:  The Early Iron Industry of the Valley of the Slippery Rock.
   Butler, PA: n.p.
White, I.C.
1885  The Geology of Huntingdon County. Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, Report of Progress T3.
     Harrisburg, PA: Board of Commissioners for the Second Geological Survey.
White, John G.
1909  Twentieth Century of Mercer County.  
   n.p.: n.p.
White, John R.
1983 Early Nineteenth Century Blast Furnaces Charcoals;  Analysis and Economics.
   Published in "Conference on Historic Archaeology. Papers," Vol. 15, 1983: 106-117.  n.p.:  n.p.
1986 Survey and Analysis of Pre-1850 Blast Furnace Sites in Western Pennsylvania.
   Published in "Proceedings of the Symposium on Ohio Valley Urban and Historic Archaeology,"  Vol.         IV, 1986:74-85. n.p.:  n.p.
Wiley, Samuel T.
1889   Cyclopdia of Fayette County.
    Philadelphia, PA:  C.A. Ruoff Company.   [(Wiley,1888:446). Samuel Martin was a furnace-man at Turnbull's Furnace, Fayette Co., in 1790.]
1897  Biographical and Portrait Cyclopedia of the Nineteenth Congressional District of Pennsylvania (Cumberland, York, and Adams Counties):  
   Containing biographical sketches of prominent and representative citizens of the district, together with an introductory historical sketch.  2nd. ed.. Philadelphia, PA:  C.A.Ruoff Company.
1986  Biographical and Protrait Cyclopedia of Cuberland, York and Adams Couties Pennsylvania.  
   reprint ed. of the 1897 ed. with new Index.   Laughlintown, PA: Southwest Pennsylvania Genealogical Services.
Williamsburg Heritage and Historical Society
1988   A Report on the Former Etna Iron Works.  
   Williamsburg, PA: Williamsburg Heritage and Historical Society.
[Report done for the Mount Etna Coaliton on the Mount Etna Furnace, Blair Co.].
Wilson, Theophilus L.
1937  The Iron Industry in Clarion County.  
   Published in "Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine," vol. XX, (March, 1937), pp.15-30.  Pittsburgh, PA: Western Pennsylvania Historical Society.
Winder, Spencer
1945   A History of Warwick Furnace.
   8pp., n.p.: n.p.
Wolsiffer, Kitty
1981  A Tale of Two Pattons.
   Published in, "Centre County Heritage,"  Fall.
Writers' Program
1940   Pennsylvania:  A Guide to the Keystone State.
    Compiled by workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projcts Administration in the State of Pennsylvania.,  American Guide Series.  New York, NY:  Oxford University Press.
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Yaklish, J.P.
1938   The Iron Ore Deposits of Cornwall, Pa.  
    published in "Explosives Engineer," vol.16, no.11: pp.327-333,  Wilmington, DE: Explosives Engineer.
Yates, W. Ross
1963  History of the Lehigh Valley Region.  
    Allentown, PA: n.p.
1974 Discovery of the Process for Making Anthracite Iron.
    Published in "Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,"  Vol. 98 (April 1974: 206-223.  n.p.:  n.p.
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Zentmyer, R.A.
1916  Early Iron Works of Central Pennsylvania.
     Altoona, PA:  Altoona Tribune Publishing Company
Zimmerman, Albright
1986   Iron for American Railroads, 1830-1840.    
     published in "Canal History and Technology Proceedings," Iron Issue, vol. 5 (March 22,1986): pp.63-101., n.p.:n.p.
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